Author + information
- Received January 20, 1987
- Revision received April 29, 1987
- Accepted May 8, 1987
- Published online October 1, 1987.
- ↵*Address for reprints: Herbert Dittmann, MD, Medizinische Klinik III, Otfried-Mueller-Strasse 10, 7400 Tuebingen, West Germany.
In 40 patients cardiac output was simultaneously determined by pulsed Doppler echocardiography and thermodilution (range 4.0 to 10.2 liters/min). The sample volume was located in the center of the mitral anulus, at the tips of the mitral leaflets and in the center of the aortic anulus. Circular cross-sectional areas of the mitral anulus, aortic anulus and aortic bulbus were calculated from M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiographic diameters. The varying short axis of the elliptical mitral opening area was obtained from the diastolic leaflet separation in the M-mode, and the long axis was derived from the maximal mitral orifice area or mitral anulus diameter. Cardiac output was calculated by multiplying time-velocity integrals with the different areas and heart rate.
Doppler flow measurements correlated significantly with the thermodilution method (r = 0.79 to 0.93). Flow measurements at the aortic anulus were most accurate (r = 0.93, SEE = 0.589 liter/min) if the annular area was derived from the M-mode tracing. Measurement of the anulus in the apical five chamber view yielded a significant underestimation and the area of the aortic bulbus provided an overestimation of cardiac output. Left ventricular inflow was underestimated at the mitral leaflet tips and overestimated at the mitral anulus.
The accuracy of pulsed Doppler cardiac output measurements strongly depends on the assumed flow area and sampling site. Both should be determined at the same level in the inflow or outflow tract of the left ventricle. Measurement of cardiac output in the center of the aortic anulus provided the highest accuracy.
- Received January 20, 1987.
- Revision received April 29, 1987.
- Accepted May 8, 1987.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation