Author + information
- Received August 29, 1988
- Revision received November 29, 1988
- Accepted January 5, 1989
- Published online June 1, 1989.
- Sharon M. Dailey, MD∗,
- G. Neal Kay, MD,
- Andrew E. Epstein, MD, FACC,
- David C. McGiffin, MD,
- James K. Kirklin, MD, FACC and
- Vance J. Plumb, MD, FACC
- ↵∗Address for reprints: Sharon M. Dailey, MD, Division of Cardiovascular Disease, Department of Medicine, 321-K Tinsley Harrison Towers, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294.
Twenty-seven patients who had pairs of stainless steel wire electrodes placed on the right and the left ventricle during cardiac surgery underwent both epicardial and endocardial programmed ventricular stimulation to assess the inducibility of ventricular tachycardia. Twenty-six of the patients had coronary artery disease and were studied to evaluate map-guided surgery for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Burst ventricular pacing and up to three ventricular extrastimuli coupled to two drive train cycle lengths were delivered from the right and left ventricular epicardial wire electrodes and from endocardial catheter electrodes placed at the apex and outflow tract of the right ventricle.
Ventricular tachycardia was reproducibly induced in three patients by both endocardial and epicardial stimulation. In one patient ventricular tachycardia was reproducibly induced by epicardial stimulation, but nonreproducible, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was induced by endocardial stimulation. Ventricular tachycardia remained inducible by both endocardial and epicardial stimulation in three instances (two patients) during drug therapy. A negative study (<10 consecutive ventricular beats induced) was obtained in 23 patients by both endocardial and epicardial stimulation.
The patients were followed up for 12 to 43 months (average 31). Sudden death or documented ventricular tachycardia occurred in two of the three patients with a positive study by both endocardial and epicardial stimulation. Nineteen (83%) of the 23 patients with concordantly negative studies remained free of arrhythmias.
On the basis of concordant results of endocardial and epicardial stimulation (p = 0.001) these results suggest that epicardial stimulation of the right and the left ventricle is an acceptable method to assess the postoperative inducibility of ventricular tachycardia. Because it eliminates the need for cardiac catheterization, it is probably the preferred method for postoperative ventricular tachycardia induction studies.
- Received August 29, 1988.
- Revision received November 29, 1988.
- Accepted January 5, 1989.