Author + information
- Received March 21, 1990
- Revision received June 27, 1990
- Accepted July 13, 1990
- Published online December 1, 1990.
- Isobel A. Muhiudeen, MD, PhD∗,
- David A. Roberson, MD1,
- Norman H. Silverman, MD, FACC,
- Gary Haas, MD,
- Kevin Turley, MD, FACC and
- Michael K. Cahalan, MD2
- ↵∗Address for reprints: Isobel A. Muhiudeen, MD, PhD, Department of Anesthesia, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0648.
To determine the utility and limitations of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in infants and children with congenital intracardiac shunts, intraoperative transesophageal (n = 50) and epicardial (n = 49) echocardiograms were performed before and after cardiopulmonary bypass in children from 4 days to 16 years old and 3 to 45 kg in body weight. A miniaturized transesophageal probe (6.9 mm maximal diameter) was used in 36 patients weighing ≤20 kg. Epicardial imaging was performed with a 5 MHz precordial probe.
The intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic findings before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were correct and complete in 94% of patients. Transesophageal echocardiography correctly identified atrial septal defects, most types of ventricular septal defects, anomalous pulmonary veins, atrioventricular septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus and double inlet ventricles. It failed to provide a correct diagnosis in only three patients, all of whom had doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defects. Epicardial echocardiography identified all cases that had a doubly committed subarterial ventricular septal defect. A correct and complete intraoperative diagnosis was obtained with the use of epicardial imaging in 92% before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, but this technique required interruption of surgery and could not be completed in three patients because of induced arrhythmias and hypotension.
These results demonstrated that intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography consistently defined important morphologic, color and pulsed Doppler ultrasound features of most congenital shunt lesions. Lesions that involved the right ventricular outflow tract are sometimes difficult to image with uniplane transesophageal echocardiography. There were no complications in any of the 50 subjects.
- Received March 21, 1990.
- Revision received June 27, 1990.
- Accepted July 13, 1990.