Author + information
- Received April 27, 1990
- Revision received September 24, 1990
- Accepted October 4, 1990
- Published online March 1, 1991.
- Ehud Deviri, MD, MSurg1,
- Pinhas Sareli, MD, FACC*,1,
- Thomas Wisenbaugh, MD, FACC1 and
- Stephanus L. Cronje, MBBChB, MMed, FCS (SA)1
- ↵*Address for reprints: Pinhas Sareli, MD, Department of Cardiology, Baragwanath Hospital, P.O. Bertsham 2013, Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa.
One hundred patients (32 male) aged 5 months to 82 years (median 32 years) underwent 106 surgical procedures for 112 mechanical prosthetic valves obstructed by a thrombus (n = 61) or pannus (n = 7), or both (n = 44), between January 1, 1980 and December 31, 1989. The position of the obstructed prosthesis was aortic in 51 patients (48%), mitral in 49 (46%) and both aortic and mitral in 6 (6%). The types of obstructed prosthetic valves were Björk-Shiley (n = 51), St. Jude (n = 41) and Medtronic-Hail (n = 20). The time interval between valve replacement and obstruction ranged from 6 weeks to 13 years (median 4 years). Of 63% of patients in whom coagulation variables were available at the time of obstruction, 70% were receiving inadequate anticoagulant therapy. In 63% of the procedures the patient was in New York Heart Association functional class IV.
Two patients underwent preoperative thrombolysis with incomplete results. Operative procedures included valve replacement (n = 81), valve declotting and excision of pannus (n = 23) and aortic valve replacement and mitral valve declotting (n = 2). The early mortality rate was 12.3% (13 patients), and there was no difference between surgery for mitral prostheses (12.2%) versus aortic prostheses (13.7%). The perioperative mortality rate was 17.5% (11 of 63 patients) in patients in functional class IV and 4.7% (2 of 43 patients) in those in functional classes I to III (p < 0.05). For valve replacement, the mortality rate was 12% (10 of 81 patients) and for declotting of the prosthesis 13% (3 of 23 patients).
It is concluded that although obstruction of a mechanical valve prosthesis is usually associated with thrombus, pannus formation is relatively frequent. Clinical presentation varies between minimal or absent symptoms to cardiocirculatory collapse. Symptoms were not related to position or model of prosthesis. Prompt surgical treatment is associated with a relatively low mortality rate. Short-term results after prosthesis declotting and excision of pannus are comparable with those of prosthetic valve replacement.
- Received April 27, 1990.
- Revision received September 24, 1990.
- Accepted October 4, 1990.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation