Author + information
- Received March 18, 1990
- Revision received August 28, 1990
- Accepted September 11, 1990
- Published online March 1, 1991.
- Fred Morady, MD, FACC*,1,
- Alan Kadish, MD, FACC1,
- Shimon Rosenheck, MD1,
- Hugh Calkins, MD1,
- William H. Kou1,
- Michael De Buitleir, MD1 and
- Joao Sousa, MD1
- ↵*Address for reprints: Fred Morady, MD, Division of Cardiology, B1F245, University of Michigan Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0022.
Fifteen consecutive patients with drug-refractory, recurrent, sustained, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and a history of remote myocardial infarction underwent catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia. Shocks of 100 to 300 J were delivered to sites at which pacing during ventricular tachycardia resulted in concealed entrainment, in which the ventricular tachycardia accelerated to the pacing rate, there was a long stimulus to QRS interval and there was no change in the configuration of the QRS complex during pacing at several rates compared with the configuration during ventricular tachycardia, thus identifying a zone of slow conduction in the reentrant circuit.
Concealed entrainment was demonstrated in nine (60%) of 15 patients, and the stimulus to QRS intervals were 90 to 400 ms. At sites of concealed entrainment, the endocardial activation time relative to the QRS complex during ventricular tachycardia ranged from −125 to +50 ms, the timing of the local electrogram relative to the QRS complex was the same during entrainment as during ventricular tachycardia and the pace map during sinus rhythm was discordant with that of the ventricular tachycardia in seven patients. In the six patients in whom a site of concealed entrainment could not be identified, the target site for ablation was selected on the basis of identification of an isolated middiastolic potential, activation mapping and pace mapping. The mean (±SD) cumulative number of joules delivered to the target site was 306 ± 140. A successful long-term clinical outcome was achieved in 9 of the 15 patients (mean follow-up 20 ± 7 months). The clinical success rate was the same whether the target site was selected on the basis of concealed entrainment (five of nine, 56%) or on the basis of the other mapping techniques (four of six, 67%).
In conclusion, the responses to pacing suggest that sites at which there is concealed entrainment may be located within a zone of slow conduction in the ventricular tachycardia reentry circuit, although not necessarily in an area critical for the maintenance of reentry. The long-term clinical efficacy of catheter ablation targeted to sites of concealed entrainment is about 60%, similar to the results achieved when conventional mapping techniques are used.
- Received March 18, 1990.
- Revision received August 28, 1990.
- Accepted September 11, 1990.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation