Author + information
- James E. Lock, MD, FACC
The adult with congenital heart disease who undergoes cardiac catheterization at the present time is most likely to have complex heart disease and is left with clinically important sequelae or residual defects, ventricular dysfunction or arrhythmias. Residual defects such as paravalvular leaks, coronary fistulas and pulmonary artery narrowings may be corrected with transcatheter techniques. Patients with simple forms of congenital heart disease (for example, atrial septal defect patent ductus arteriosus, aortic valve stenosis, pulmonary valve stenosis) will go to the catheterization laboratory for treatment, not diagnosis. Certain lesions previously considered benign (for example, patent foramen ovale) may require definitive interventional therapy to reduce the risk of stroke from paradoxic embolism.