Author + information
- Received February 25, 1991
- Revision received May 16, 1991
- Accepted May 26, 1991
- Published online November 15, 1991.
- Oliver Stümper, MDa,∗,
- Maarten Witsenburg, MDb,
- George R. Sutherland, FRCPa,
- Adri Cromme-Dijkhuis, MDb,
- Michael J. Godman, MDa and
- John Hess, MDb
- ↵∗Address for reprints: Oliver Stümper, MD, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Sciennes Road, Edinburgh EH9 1LF, Scotland.
Transesophageal echocardiography was used prospectively in 22 children scheduled for interventional cardiac catheterization (9 with pulmonary valvuloplasty, 5 with aortic valvuloplasty, 1 with pulmonary angioplasty, 2 with aortic angioplasty, 2 with patent ductus arteriosus occlusion and 3 with Mustard baffle dilation) to determine its potential value as a monitoring technique. The patients ranged in age from 0.9 to 14.6 years (mean 5.4) and in weight from 9.5 to 49.2 kg (mean 21.1).
Studies were completed in all patients without complications. Preintervention studies provided important new information in two patients, leading to cancellation of the planned procedure. Major contributions of transesophageal monitoring included 1) a real time assessment of catheter placement across either atrioventricular valve and the aortic valve during balloon valvuloplasty; 2) immediate assessment of aortic valve and aortic wall morphology during balloon dilation; and 3) detailed morphologic and hemodynamic information together with enhanced catheter guidance during Mustard baffle dilation.
After pulmonary valvuloplasty, partial chordal rupture of the tricuspid valve was documented in one patient. In two patients, balloon catheter position was modified according to the transesophageal findings. The assessment of changes in pulmonary valve morphology and transcatheter occlusion of a patent ductus arteriosus was not enhanced by single-plane transesophageal monitoring. Pulsed wave Doppler studies contributed additional information in the assessment of immediate hemodynamic changes after interventional procedures.
Transesophageal echocardiography is a new important guiding and monitoring technique during interventional cardiac catheterization procedures in children. It can provide additional real time imaging information, immediate identification of complications and assessment of hemodynamic changes.
- Received February 25, 1991.
- Revision received May 16, 1991.
- Accepted May 26, 1991.