Author + information
- Received August 6, 1991
- Revision received October 21, 1991
- Accepted November 1, 1991
- Published online April 1, 1992.
- Tatsuji Kono, MD,
- Hani N. Sabbah, PhD, FACC∗,
- Howard Rosman, MD, FACC,
- Mohsin Alam, MD, FACC,
- Syed Jafri, MD, FACC,
- Paul D. Stein, MD, FACC and
- Sidney Goldstein, MD, FACC
- ↵∗Address for reprints: Hani N. Sabbah, PhD, Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Michigan 48202.
The mechanism and temporal manifestation of functional mitral regurgitation after acute myocardial ischemia were examined in eight dogs. Regional ischemia was produced by selective micro-embolization of the left circumflex coronary artery. Mitral regurgitation and regional left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were evaluated with use of Doppler color flow mapping and two-dimensional echocardiography, respectively. Measurements were made at baseline (before embolization) and were repeated at 30 min and 3 weeks after embolization.
Mitral regurgitation developed in all dogs 30 min after embolization and completely subsided 3 weeks later. There was no evidence of mitral valve prolapse, mitral anulus dilation or left ventricular segmental dyskinesia at any time during the study. Regional wall motion analysis showed only hypokinesia of the left ventricular segment overlying the papillary muscle at 30 min with subsequent normalization of the segment at 3 weeks. Mitral regurgitation was accompanied by an increase of the end-systolic distance between the mitral anulus plane and the point of coaptation of the mitral leaflets. This distance was 0.5 ± 0.1 cm at baseline, increased to 0.9 ± 0.1 cm 30 min after the embolization (p < 0.001) and returned to near baseline (0.6 ± 0.1 cm) 3 weeks after the embolization.
These data indicate that mitral valve prolapse, mitral anulus dilation and regional left ventricular dyskinesia are not necessary conditions for the development of functional mitral regurgitation after acute myocardial ischemia. Instead, hypokinesia of the ventricular segment overlying the papillary muscle and leading to retraction of the mitral leaflets toward the apex appears to be a sufficient condition for incomplete leaflet coaptation.
☆ The echocardiographic ultrasound imaging system used in the present study was provided by Hewlett-Packard.
- Received August 6, 1991.
- Revision received October 21, 1991.
- Accepted November 1, 1991.