Author + information
- Received December 20, 1982
- Revision received February 28, 1983
- Accepted March 2, 1983
- Published online July 1, 1983.
- Morris N. Kotler, MD, FACC*,
- Gary S. Mintz, MD, FACC,
- Ioannis Panidis, MD,
- Joel Morganroth, MD, FACC,
- Bernard L. Segal, MD, FACC and
- John Ross, RCPT
- ↵*Address for reprints: Morris N. Kotler, MD, Hahnemann University, 230 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102.
Noninvasive techniques are helpful in evaluating the function of mechanical prostheses and tissue valves. Combined phonocardiography and M-mode echocardiography together with cinefluoroscopy are the most useful noninvasive techniques in differentiating normal from abnormal metallic prosthetic valve function. The intensity of the opening and closing clicks and associated murmurs will depend on the type of prosthetic valve, the heart rate and rhythm and the underlying hemodynamic status. Arrhythmias or conduction disturbances, or both, may produce motion patterns that mimic some of the echocardiographic signs of malfunctioning prosthetic valves. Differentiation of thrombus formation or tissue ingrowth from paravalvular regurgitation or dehiscence is possible by noninvasive techniques. Disc variance, a potentially serious and lethal problem with the older Beall valves, can be readily detected by cinefluoroscopy and echophonocardiography.
With regard to bioprosthetic valves, two-dimensional echocardiography is superior to M-mode echocardiography in detecting primary valve failure. In addition, detection of vegetations, valve alignment and ring and individual leaflet motion can be best accomplished by two-dimensional echocardiography. Of greater importance is the patient serving as his or her own control in the follow-up assessment of prosthetic valve function by noninvasive techniques.
- Received December 20, 1982.
- Revision received February 28, 1983.
- Accepted March 2, 1983.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation