Author + information
- Received October 20, 1982
- Revision received April 5, 1983
- Accepted April 6, 1983
- Published online September 1, 1983.
- Yoshiyuki Hada, MD*,
- Katsu Takenaka, MD,
- Toshiyuki Ishimitsu, MD,
- Tsuneo Yamaguchi, MD,
- Keiko Amano, MD,
- Hisako Takahashi, MD,
- Reiko Takikawa, MD and
- Tsuguya Sakamoto, MD, FACC
- ↵*Address for reprints: Yoshiyuki Hada, MD, The Second Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.
To investigate the genesis of the initial low frequency component of the first heart sound that precedes the high frequency vibrations associated with closure of the atrioventricular valves, echophonocardiograms of 36 persons were recorded. These included 10 normal subjects and 26 patients with various types of heart disease including mitral valve replacement. Electrocardiograms demonstrated normal sinus rhythm in 23 subjects, atrial fibrillation in 9, complete atrioventricular block in 2 and atrial flutter in 2. In the phonocardiogram, the low frequency component of the first heart sound followed the onset of the QRS complex and preceded the first high frequency component of this sound. The low frequency component occurred simultaneously with the beginning of the final fast closing movement of the mitral valve on he echocardiogram and was found both in normal rhythm and in arrhythmias. However, in arrhythmias its intensity varied on a beat to beat basis, being loudest after a short RR interval or when atrial systole occurred very close to the expected time of ventricular systole. In patients in whom apexcardiograms were recorded, the low frequency component was coincident with or very close to the onset of ventricular systole.
It is concluded that the low frequency component of the first heart sound represents vibrations caused by contraction of the left ventricle and deceleration of antegrade blood flow across the mitral valve. Neither atrial contraction nor mitral valve tension is necessary for the production of this soft initial component.
- Received October 20, 1982.
- Revision received April 5, 1983.
- Accepted April 6, 1983.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation