Author + information
- Received October 9, 1991
- Revision received March 12, 1992
- Accepted March 30, 1992
- Published online October 1, 1992.
- Kenneth M. Borow, MD, FACC∗,a,
- Alex Neumann, BSa,
- Richard H. Marcus, MDa,
- Pinhas Sareli, MD, FACC∗ and
- Roberto M. Lang, MD, FACCa
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Kenneth M. Borow, MD, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago Medical Center, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, Box 44, Chicago, Illinois 60637.
Objectives. The study was designed to critically evaluate the clinical utility of ejection phase and nonejection phase indexes of contractile state in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction.
Background. Ejection phase indexe of left ventricular systolic performance are unable to differentiate contractility changes from alterations in loading conditions. Isevolumetric and end-systolic force-velocity indexes have been proposed as alternative measurements of contractile state that are load independent.
Methods. Seventeen patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy were studied during cardiac catheterization. High fidelity central aortic and left ventricular pressure measurements were made with simultaneous echocardiographic recordings of chamber minor- and long-axis dimensions and wall thickness. Data were acquired under control conditions, during nitropusisside infusion and with dopamine (6μg/kg per min).
Results. Patients were classified into those without (group 1, n = 10) and those with (group 2, n = 7) a decrease in end-diastolic circumferential wail stress in response to dopamine. There were no baseline differences between the groups in functional class, left ventricular chamber geometry or cardiovascular hemodynamics. Ejection phase indexes were variably altered by changes in preload, afterload and heart rate, thereby complicating physiologic interpretation of data. Dopamine increased the commonly used isovolumetric index, maximal rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (dP/dtmax, by 64% for group 1 but by only 16% for group 2 (p < 0.001), resulting in an underestimation of contractile state change in 41% of patients. In contrast, the left ventricular end-systoic circumferential wall stress-rate-corrected velocity of fiber shortening relation, which incorporates afterload, ventricular wall mass and heart rate in its analysis, was a sensitive contractility measurement that was preload independent and equally augmented by dopamine for both groups.
Conclusions. Of the left ventricular contractility indexes evaluated, the end-systolic circumferential wall stress-rate corrected velocity of fiber shortening relation was the most physiologically appropriate for assessing pharmacologically induced changes in inotropic state that were accompanied by complex alterations in loading conditions in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
- Received October 9, 1991.
- Revision received March 12, 1992.
- Accepted March 30, 1992.