Author + information
- Received May 20, 1992
- Revision received August 10, 1992
- Accepted August 18, 1992
- Published online March 1, 1993.
- Masayuki Katsuragawa, MD,
- Hisayoshi Fujiwara, MD∗,
- Masami Miyamae, MD and
- Shigetake Sasayama, MD, FACC
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Hisayoshi Fujiwara, MD, Third Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyoto University Hospital, 54 Kawaracho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606, Japan.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the histologic-angiographic correlates of chronic total coronary occlusion and to explain why a tapering type of occlusion and short occluded segments are favorable for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
Background. Coronary angioplasty is less successful for vessels with chronic total occlusion than for highly stenotic but patent vessels. Several clinical and angiographic factors determining the rate of initial success have been investigated, but the underlying histologic features are not clear.
Methods. Ten autopsy hearts that showed chronic total coronary occlusion on cineangiography performed ≤3 months before death were selected. In all, the estimated duration of occlusion was >1 year. At autopsy, postmortem angiography was performed and hearts were fixed with 10% buffered formalin. Occluded segments were sectioned transversely and serially into slices 10 μm thick. Every five slices were stained in hematoxylin-eosin and elastic van-Gieson.
Results. Ten hearts with chronic total coronary occlusion were angiographically classified into five with a tapering and five with an abrupt type of occlusion and seven with a short (≤15 mm) and three with a long (>15 mm) occluded segment. Histologically, the occluded segment was composed of loose or dense fibrous tissue, atheroma, small vascular channels and calcified tissue. Reconstruction of the serial preparations showed that small lumen recanalized areas (diameter 160 to 230 μn) with surrounding loose fibrous tissue penetrated the occluded segment in four hearts with occlusion of the tapering type and a short occluded segment. In these four cases, the lack of anterograde flow on cineangiography could be explained by the presence of rich collateral flow. In three cases of the abrupt type of occlusion with a short occluded segment, a mass of loose fibrous tissue penetrated the occluded segment. In hearts with a long occluded segment (one with a tapering type of occlusion and two with an abrupt type), there was no recanalization and loose fibrous tissue was dispersed in the occluded segment.
Conclusions. Chronic total coronary occlusion of the tapering type or with a short occluded segment, or both, is possibly favorable for angioplasty, because small lumen recanalized areas or loose fibrous tissue penetrates the occluded segment and may form a route for successful angioplasty.
- Received May 20, 1992.
- Revision received August 10, 1992.
- Accepted August 18, 1992.