Author + information
- Received March 4, 1991
- Revision received December 28, 1992
- Accepted December 30, 1992
- Published online July 1, 1993.
- Toshinori Utsunomiya, MD,
- Rajen Doshi, BS,
- Dharmendra Patel, BS,
- Kapil Mehta, BS,
- Dat Nguyen, BS,
- Walter L. Henry, MD and
- Julius M. Gardin, MD∗
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Julius M. Gardin, MD, Cardiology Noninvasive Laboratory, University of California Irvine Medical Center, P.O. Box 14091, Orange, California 92613-4091.
Objectives. The goal of this study was to develop an accurate, simplified proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method for calculating volume flow rate using lower blue-red interface velocity produced by a color Doppler zero baseline shift technique.
Background. The Doppler color proximal isovelocity surface area method has been shown to be accurate for calculating the volume flow rate (Q) across a narrowed orifice by the formula Q = PISA × Blue-red interface velocity. A hemispheric model is generally used to calculate proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA = 2πa2, where a = the radius corresponding to the blue-red interface velocity). Although a hemispheric model is simple, requiring measurement of one radius, it may underestimate the actual volume flow rate because, in the general case, the shape of a proximal isovelocity surface area is hemielliptic. Although a hemielliptic model is generally more accurate for calculating proximal isovelocity surface area, it is more complex, requiring measurement of two orthogonal radii.
Methods. Sixteen in vitro constant flow model studies were performed using planar circular orifices (diameter range 6 to 16 mm). The blue-red interface velocity was changed from 3 to 54 cm/s using color Doppler zero baseline shift.
Results. 1) With decreasing blue-red interface velocity, the size of the proximal isovelocity surface area was increased, and its shape changed from hemielliptic to hemispheric. 2) With the blue-red interface velocity in the range 11 to 15 cm/s, the proximal isovelocity surface area became nearly hemispheric; however, it was difficult to determine the blue-red interface radius at a blue-red interface velocity <10 cm/s because of interface fluctuations. 3) Calculated volume flow rate using the hemispheric proximal isovelocity surface area model with a single radius was relatively accurate at a blue-red interface velocity of 11 to 15 cm/s (mean percent difference from actual volume flow rate was −3.6%).
Conclusions. Because the shape of the proximal isovelocity surface area is nearly hemispheric at a blue-red interface velocity of 11 to 15 cm/s, volume flow rate can be accurately calculated in this proximal isovelocity surface area interface velocity range (produced by zero baseline shift) by measuring a single-interface radius. This approach should be clinically useful for calculating the volume flow rate across stenotic and regurgitant valves and across shunt defects.
- Received March 4, 1991.
- Revision received December 28, 1992.
- Accepted December 30, 1992.