Author + information
- Received November 16, 1992
- Revision received March 31, 1993
- Accepted April 6, 1993
- Published online October 1, 1993.
- Julie A. Kovach, MD,
- Gary S. Mintz, MD, FACC,
- Augusto D. Pichard, MD,
- Kenneth M. Kent, MD, PhD, FACC,
- Jeffrey J. Popma, MD, FACC,
- Lowell F. Satler, MD, FACC and
- Martin B. Leon, MD, FACC∗
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Martin B. Leon, MD, Washington Hospital Center, Suite 4B-14, 110 Irving Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20010.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to use sequential intravascular ultrasound imaging before intervention, after rotational atherectomy and after adjunct balloon angioplasty to characterize the mechanisms of lumen enlargement after each.
Background. Rotational atherectomy uses a high speed, rotating, diamond-tipped elliptic burr to abrade atherosclerotic plaque to increase lumen size. In vitro studies have shown that high speed rotational atherectomy selectively abrades hard, especially calcified, plaque elements. However, rotational atherectomy procedures usually require adjunct balloon angioplasty.
Methods. Forty-eight lesions in 46 patients were treated with rotational atherectomy followed by adjunct balloon angioplasty in 44. Quantitative coronary arteriographic and intravascular ultrasound measurements of the target lesion were made before intervention, after rotational atherectomy and after balloon angioplasty.
Results. Before intervention, target lesion external elastic membrane area measured 17.3 ± 5.9 mm2, lumen area measured 1.8 ± 0.9 mm2and plaque plus media area measured 15.7 ± 4.1 mm2. After rotational atherectomy, lumen area increased, plaque plus media area decreased, arc of target lesion calcium decreased and 26% of the target lesions had dissection planes After adjunct balloon angioplasty, external elastic membrane area increased, lumen area increased, plaque plus media area did not change and 77% of the target lesions had dissection planes. Arterial expansion was seen in 80% of lesions. The pattern of dissection plane location, which was predominantly within calcified plaque after rotational atherectomy, became predominantly adjacent to calcified plaque after adjunct balloon angioplasty (p = 0.008).
Conclusions. Sequential intravascular ultrasound imaging shows that high speed rotational atherectomy causes lumen enlargement by selective ablation of hard, especially calcific, atherosclerotic plaque with little tissue disruption and rare arterial expansion. Adjunct balloon angioplasty further increased lumen area by a combination of arterial dissection and arterial expansion, especially of compliant, noncalcified plaque elements.
- Received November 16, 1992.
- Revision received March 31, 1993.
- Accepted April 6, 1993.