Author + information
- Received October 21, 1992
- Revision received April 15, 1993
- Accepted April 29, 1993
- Published online November 1, 1993.
- Jun Zhang, MD∗∗,
- Takahiro Shiota, MD,
- Robin Shandas, PhD,
- You-Bin Deng, MD,
- Robert Weintraub, MD,
- Juliana Paik, BS,
- Dorian Liepmann, PhD and
- David J. Sahn, MD, FACC
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Dr. David J. Sahn, Clinical Care Center for Congenital Heart Disease. Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 South West Sam Jackson Park Road — UHN60, Portland, Oregon 97201.
Objetives. The present study was designed to estimate the influence of different-shaped adjacent surfaces on regurgitant jets as assessed by color Doppler imaging and laser-Illuminated dye optical visualisation,
Background. Because color Doppler techniques provide real-time two-dimentional imaging of flow, the evaluation of valvular regurgitation by analysis of variance-encoded regurgitant jets by this method has been widely used in clinical studies. However, recent studies have demonstrated that color Doppler jet sizes are affected not only by several hemodynamk factors and instrument settings but also by the interaction between jets and adjacent wall surfaces. In clinical conditions, jets may interact with adjacent walls of variable shapes that might have different effects on the jet size.
Methods. An in vitro model was constructed consisting of a rigid, optically clear receiving chamber that had no outlet resistance and had a pulsatile pump ejecting through 1.5, 2.3 and 3.1 mm2inflow orifices into the chamber. The surfaces were flat or smoothly and equally curved, convex and concave aluminum positioned at 0,2 and 4 mm from and to the side of the inflow orifices. The pump was run with stroke volumes from 0.5 to 3.0 ml and with a pulse frequency of 70 beats/min, The echocardiographic and laser beams were aimed at the inflow orifice imaging jets perpendicular to the surfaces (vertical view) through the central plane of the jet flows. Maximal jet areas were measured by both color Doppler techniques and laser-illuminated dye visualization.
Results. Color Doppler study showed fair correlation between the jet areas and the stroke volumes (r = 0.83 to 0.99), but the jet sizes under different surface conditions were variable. All the surface jet areas at a jet-surface distance of 0 and 2 mm were smaller than free jet areas at the same stroke volume for both flat and convex surfaces (p < 0.001). Flow constraint by the concave surface resulted in the smallest jet areas (p < 0.001). The color Doppler jet areas on the curved surfaces were significantly smaller than the laser-illuminated dye visualization jet areas (p < 0.01 to 0.0001). However, at intermediate jet-surface distances (4 mm and sometimes 2 mm with higher velocity flows), jet interaction with the flat and especially with the convex surface resulted in larger jets. This effect was most pronounced on dye fluorescence studies because flow around these jets consisted mainly of low velocity vortical events with only partial surface adherence and these low velocity swirling flows were not well imaged by color Doppler technique.
Conclusions. Our study suggests that the different-shaped adjacent surfaces with different degrees of flow alterations resulted in variable decreases in jet size and that color Doppler imaging could not encode and image the angled and low velocity swirling events well when jets flowed along the curved surfaces. These effects need to be taken into account when interpreting color Doppler images.
↵∗ Present address: Division of Ultrasonic Diagnosis, Xijing Hospital, Xian 710032, People's Republic of China.
☆ This study was presented in part at the 41st Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology, Dallas, Texas, April 1992 It was partially supported by Grant RO1 HL 36472 from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
- Received October 21, 1992.
- Revision received April 15, 1993.
- Accepted April 29, 1993.