Author + information
- Received September 24, 1993
- Revision received April 21, 1994
- Accepted April 26, 1994
- Published online October 1, 1994.
- Peter M. Sapin, MD, FACC∗,a,
- Klaus M. Schröder, MDa,
- Aasha S. Gopal, MDa,∗,
- Mikel D. Smith, FACC, MDa,
- Anthony N. Demaria, MD, FACCa and
- Donald L. King, MDa,∗
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Dr. Peter M. Sapin, Division of Cardiology MN-670, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40536.
Objectives. We compared two- and three-dimensional echocardiopaphy with cineventriculography for measurement of left ventricular volume in patients.
Background. Three-dimensional echocardiography has been shown to be highly accurate and superior to two-dimensional echocardiography in measuring left ventricular volume in vitro. However, there has been little comparison of the two methods in patients.
Methods. Two- and three-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 35 patients (mean age 48 years) 1 to 3 h before left ventricular cineventriculography. Three-dimensional echocardiography used an acoustic spatial locator to register image position. Volume was computed using a polyhedral surface reconstruction algorithm based on multiple nonparallel, unevenly spaced short-axis cross sections. Two-dimensional echocardiography used the apical biplane summation of disks method. Single-plane cineventriculographic volumes were calculated using the summation of disks algorithm. The methods were compared by linear regression and a limits of agreement analysis. For the latter, systematic error was assessed by the mean of the deferences (cineventriculography minus echocardiography), and the limits of agreement were defined as ±2 SD from the mean difference.
Results. Three-dimensional echocardiographic volumes demonstrated excellent correlation (end-diastole r = 0.97; end-systole r = 0.98) with cineventriculography. Standard errors of the estimate were approximately half those of two-dimensional echocardiography (end-diastole ±11.0 ml vs. ±21.5 ml; end-systole ±10.2 ml vs. ±17.0 ml). By limits of agreement analysis the end-diastolic mean diferences for two- and three-dimensional echocardiography were 21.1 and 12.9 ml, respectively. The limits of agreement (±2 SD) were ±54.0 and ±24.8 ml, respectively. For end-systole, comparable improvement was obtained by three-dimensional echocardiography. Results for ejection fraction by the two methods were similar.
Conclusions. Three-dimensional echocardiography correlates highly with cineventriculography for estimation of ventricular volumes in patients and has approximately half the variability of two-dimensional echocardiography for these measurements. On the basis of this study, three-dimensional echocardiography is the preferred echocardiographic technique for measurement of ventricular volume. Three-dimensional echocardiography is equivalent to two-dimensional echocardiography for measuring ejection fraction.
- Received September 24, 1993.
- Revision received April 21, 1994.
- Accepted April 26, 1994.