Author + information
- Received January 19, 1994
- Revision received April 15, 1994
- Accepted June 16, 1994
- Published online November 15, 1994.
- Jonathan D. Marmur, MDc,∗,1,
- Samin K. Sharma, MD, FACCc,
- Neda Khaghan, BAc,
- Sabino R. Torre, MDc,
- Douglas H. Israel, MDc,
- Piera A. Merlini, MDa,
- Diego Ardissino, MDb and
- John A. Ambrose, MD, FACCc
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Dr. Jonathan D. Marmur, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Box 1030 One Gustave Levy Place, New York, New York 10029.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between coronary atherosclerotic plaque injury and activation of the coagulation cascade.
Background. Thrombus formation after atherosclerotic plaque disruption has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, unstable angina and myocardial infarction.
Methods. Biochemical markers of thrombin generation (prothrombin fragment F1+2) and thrombin activity (fibrinopeptide A) were measured in coronary blood before, during and immediately after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. After demonstrating that blood withdrawal through an angioplasty catheter does not artifactually elevate the plasma levels of these markers in patients after heparinization, coronary artery samples ware collected proximal and distal to the lesion before and distal to the lesion after baltoon inflation in 26 patients.
Results. Plasma levels of F1+2measured proximal to the lesion before angioplasty (median 0.47 nmol/liter, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40 to 0.50) were significantly elevated after angioplasty (median 0.55 nmol/liter, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.72, p = 0.001). In contrast, plasma fibrinopeptide A levels measured proximal to the lesion before angioplasty (median 2.0 ng/ml, 95% CI 1.3 to 22) were similar to those measured after angioplasty (median 1.8 ng/ml, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.0, p = NS). After we defined a normal range of interassay variability on the basis of values obtained from samples drawn proximal and distal to the lesion before angioplasty, seven patients (27%) had a significant increase in F1+2plasma levels. A significant increase in plasma fibrinopeptide A occurred in five of these seven patients. Lesions with dissection, filling defects or haziness on postangioplasty angiography were associated with more thrombin generation than lesions without these features.
Conclusions. Markers of thrombio generation and activity can be collected safely and assayed accurately in heparinized blood withdrawn through aa angioplasty catheter. Balloon dilation of coronary stenoses increases thrombin generation and activity within the coronary artery in a substantial subgroup of patients undergoing angioplasty.
↵1 Dr. Marmur is a fellow of the Medical Research Council of Canada.
☆ This study was supported in part by Grant HL330I4 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
- Received January 19, 1994.
- Revision received April 15, 1994.
- Accepted June 16, 1994.