Author + information
- Received April 18, 1994
- Revision received July 4, 1994
- Accepted July 11, 1994
- Published online December 1, 1994.
- Mark Gelatt, MD,
- Robert M. Hamilton, MD∗,
- Brian W. McCrindle, MD, MPH, FACC,
- Robert M. Gow, MBBS,
- William G. Williams, MD,
- George A. Trusler, MD and
- Robert M. Freedom, MD, FACC
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Dr. Robert M. Hamilton, Division of Cardiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1X8.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and risk factors for atrial tachyarrhythmias after the Fontan operation.
Background. Atrial tachyarrhythmias cause morbidity after the Fontan operation. Causative factors may be affected by the type of systemic to pulmonary connection.
Methods. The Fontan operation was performed in 270 consecutive patients between 1982 and 1992. The mean age at operation was 7.0 ± 4.3 years. Direct atriopulmonary connection was used in 138 patients (51%), total cavopulmonary connection in 94 (35%) and right atrial to right ventricular connection in 38 (14%).
Results. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were seen early postoperatively in 55 patients (20%), preoperative atrial tachyarrhythmia being the only risk factor. Follow-up was achieved for 228 early survivors (97%) at a mean interval of 4.4 years. There were 20 late deaths. Late atrial tachyarrhythmias were noted in 29% of patients who received an atriopulmonary connection, 14% of those who received a total cavopulmonary connection and 18% of those who received a right ventricular connection (p < 0.02).
Significant risk factors as determined by unvariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were atriopulmonary connection type (odds ratio 0.40 for total cavopulmonary relative to atriopulmonary connection [p < 0.05] and 0.37 for right ventricular relative to atriopulmonary connection [p = 0.08]), longer follow-up interval (odds ratio 1.32 for each consecutive year [p < 0.002]) and atrial tachyarrhythmia in the operative period (odds ratio 6.31 [p < 0.0001]).
Conclusions. Early postoperative atrial tachyarrhythmias, length of follow-up and atriopulmonary connection are significant independent risk factors for the presence of late atrial tachyarrhythmias.
☆ This article was prepared with the assistance of Editorial Services, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
- Received April 18, 1994.
- Revision received July 4, 1994.
- Accepted July 11, 1994.