Author + information
- Received November 22, 1993
- Revision received July 4, 1994
- Accepted August 31, 1994
- Published online February 1, 1995.
- Norman H. Silverman, MD, DSc(Med), FACCa,∗,
- Leon M. Gerlis, MB, BS, FRCPathol∗,
- Siew Yen Ho, PhD, MRCPathol∗ and
- Robert H. Anderson, MD, FRCPathol∗
- ↵∗Address for correspondence: Dr. Norman H. Silverman, University of California, San Francisco, M342A, Box 0214, San Francisco, California 94143-0214.
Objectives. We examined the nature of ridges within the left ventricular outflow tract associated with ventricular septal defects that might be found by echocardiography.
Background. Echocardiography displays even small ridges well. Surgical removal of such ridges at the time of defect closure is recommended.
Methods. We examined 37 heart specimens with ventricular septal defects with a ridge, noting its nature and relation to the defect and adjacent valves. We excluded left ventricular outflow tract obstruction associated with complex lesions.
Results. Defects were perimembranous in 25 specimens, muscular in 8 and part of an atrioventricular septal defect in 5. Some hearts had multiple defects. Many of the original reports had not mentioned ridges. Three distinct ridge patterns were found. The first (n = 18) was a fold of endocardial tissue related to the membranous septum. The second (n = 12) was a defect of a fibrous nature; in 8 this was a discrete, protuberant fibrous ridge, and in 4 the obstruction was diffuse, which we termed keloidal. The third pattern (n = 7) lay circumferentially around the ventricular septal defect, seemingly associated with the defect's attempted spontaneous diminution in size. Endocardial folds were not found in specimens from patients > 5 years old. Fibrous and keloidal lesions, which may represent a continuum of progression, generally were found in specimens from older patients. Histologic studies of 17 specimens confirmed the morphologic findings. The endocardial folds were endothelial tissue, whereas the fibrous and keloidal ridges were of fibrous tissue, as were circumferential lesions. All specimens had mitral-semilunar valvular continuity.
Conclusions. Endocardial fold and circumferential lesions appear to be benign. The endocardial folds arose from the membranous ventricular septum, were not protuberant and usually were found in younger patients. The fibrous ridges, in contrast, were protuberant and were always associated with the underlying muscle of the outlet septum. These pathologic distinctions may facilitate echocardiographic diagnosis and prognosis.
☆ This study was supported by grants from the British Heart Foundation together with the Joseph Levy Foundation, London, England.
- Received November 22, 1993.
- Revision received July 4, 1994.
- Accepted August 31, 1994.