Author + information
- Received June 16, 1994
- Revision received October 3, 1994
- Accepted October 5, 1994
- Published online March 1, 1995.
- Mubadda A. Salim, MDa,*,
- Christopher L. Case, MD, FACCa,*,
- Robert M. Sade, MD, FACCa,*,
- Donald C. Watson, MD, FACCa,
- Bruce S. Alpert, MD, FACCa and
- Thomas G. Disessa, MD, FACCa
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Mubadda A. Salim, 777 Washington Avenue, Suite 215, Memphis, Tennessee 38105.
Objectives. This study attempted to provide a formula for calculation of the pulmonary/systemic flow ratio in children after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Background. With the bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis, only the superior vena cava blood is oxygenated by the lungs. The inferior vena cava flow recirculates into the systemic circulation. The ratio of these flows will determine systemic arterial saturation.
Methods. According to the Fick principle, 1) Systemic cardiac output (liters/min) = Pulmonary venous flow + Inferior vena cava flow; 2) Systemic blood oxygen transport (ml/min) = Pulmonary venous blood oxygen transport + Inferior vena cava blood oxygen transport. By substituting the first equation into the second, Pulmonary/systemic flow ratio = (Systemic saturation — Inferior vena cava saturation)/(Pulmonary venous saturation — Inferior vena cava saturation).
Results. We applied the third formula to data obtained from 34 catheterizations in 29 patients after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Mean [±SD] age at operation was 1.70 ± 1.43 years, and mean age at catheterization was 2.95 ± 1.65 years. The pulmonary/systemic flow ratio calculated for all 29 patients was 0.58 ± 0.09. Of 17 patients with aortography, 10 had systemic to pulmonary collateral vessels. Patients with collateral vessels had a significantly higher pulmonary/systemic flow ratio (0.61 ± 0.07 vs. 0.53 ± 0.07, respectively, p < 0.02) and systemic saturation (88 ± 4% vs. 82 ± 4%, respectively, p < 0.002) than those without collateral vessels. The pulmonary/systemic flow ratio in those patients with no collateral vessels was similar to the previously reported echocardiographically derived superior vena cava/ systemic flow ratio in normal children.
Conclusions. The pulmonary/systemic flow ratio after bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis can be calculated. Pulmonary blood flow in these patients determines systemic saturation and accounts for the majority of venous return in young children.
- Received June 16, 1994.
- Revision received October 3, 1994.
- Accepted October 5, 1994.
- American College of Cardiology