Author + information
- Received October 21, 1994
- Revision received March 9, 1995
- Accepted March 14, 1995
- Published online August 1, 1995.
- Robert D. Rifkin, MD, FACC1,
- Kathleen Harper, DO and
- Dennis Tighe, MD, FACC
- ↵1Address for correspondence: Dr. Robert D. Rifkin, Cardiology Division, Baystate Medical Center, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, Massachusetts 01199.
Objectives. This study sought to 1) compare the accuracy of the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) and Doppler pressure half-time methods and planimetry for echocardiographic estimation of mitral valve area; 2) evaluate the effect of atrial fibrillation on the accuracy of the PISA method; and 3) assess factors used to correct PISA area estimates for leaflet angulation.
Background. Despite recognized limitations of traditional echocardiographic methods for estimating mitral valve area, there has been no systematic comparison with the PISA method in a single cohort.
Methods. Area estimates were obtained in patients with mitral stenosis by the Gorlin hydraulic formula, PISA and pressure half-time method in 48 patients and by planimetry in 36. Two different factors were used to correct PISA estimates for leaflet angle (θ): 1) plane-angle factor (θ/180 [θ in degrees]); and 2) solid-angle factor [1 — cos(θ/2)].
Results. After exclusion of patients with significant mitral regurgitation, the correlation between Gorlin and PISA areas (0.88) was significantly greater (p < 0.04) than that between Gorlin and pressure half-time (0.78) or Gorlin and planimetry (0.72). The correlation between Gorlin and PISA area estimates was lower in atrial fibrillation than sinus rhythm (0.69 vs. 0.93), but the standard error of the estimate was only slightly greater (0.24 vs. 0.19 cm2). The average ratio of the solid- to the plane-angle correction factors was approximately equal to previously reported values of the orifice contraction coefficient for tapering stenosis.
Conclusions. 1) The accuracy of PISA area estimates in mitral stenosis is at least comparable to those of planimetry and pressure half-time. 2) Reasonable accuracy of the PISA method is possible in irregular rhythms. 3) A simple leaflet angle correction factor, θ/180 (θ in degrees), yields the physical orifice area because it overestimates the vena contracta area by a factor approximately equal to the contraction coefficient for a tapering stenosis.
- Received October 21, 1994.
- Revision received March 9, 1995.
- Accepted March 14, 1995.