Author + information
- Received January 11, 1995
- Revision received April 14, 1995
- Accepted June 7, 1995
- Published online November 1, 1995.
- Wataru Shimizu, MD*,1,
- Tohru Ohe, MD, FACC,
- Takashi Kurita, MD,
- Mayumi Kawade, MD,
- Yoshio Arakaki, MD,
- Naohiko Aihara, MD,
- Shiro Kamakura, MD,
- Tetsuro Kamiya, MD and
- Katsuro Shimomura, MD
- ↵*Address for correspondence:Dr. Wataru Shimizu. Division of Cardiology. Department of Internal Medicine. National Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-I Fujishiro-dai, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan.
Objectives. This study used monophasic action potentials to investigate the effects of verapamil and propranolol on epinephrineinduced repolarization abnormalities in congenital long QT syndrome.
Background. Early afterdepolarizations have been suggested to play a significant role in QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias in congenital long QT syndrome. Calcium channel blocking as well as beta-adrenergic blocking agents are reported to be effective in the management of this syndrome.
Methods. Monophasic action potentials from 2 to 4 sites were recorded simultaneously in eight patients with the long QT syndrome (22 sites) and in eight control patients (23 sites) and were obtained during constant atrial pacing 1) before epinephrine infusion; 2) during epinephrine infusion (0.1 μg/kg body weight min); 3) after verapamil injection (0.1 mg/kg) during epinephrine infusion; and 4) after both propranolol (0.1 mg/kg) and verapamil injections.
Results. Early afterdepolarizations were recorded in two of the eight patients (2 of 22 sites) during the control state. During epinephrine infusion, early afterdepolarizations were recorded in six patients (six sites), and ventricular premature complexes were induced in three and torsade de pointes in one. Epinephrine prolonged 90% monophasic action potential duration from 348 ± 48 (mean ± SD) to 381 ± 49 ms (22 sites, p < 0.0005) and increased the dispersion of action potential duration (difference between the longest and shortest action potential duration) from 36 ± 20 to 64 ± 34 ms (p < 0.005). Verapamil eliminated (two sites) or reduced (four sites) early afterdepolarizations and abolished ventricular premature complexes in two of the three patients as well as suppressing torsade de pointes. Verapamil shortened the action potential duration to 355 ± 28 ms (p < 0.01 vs. epinephrine) and decreased the dispersion to 44 ± 19 ms (p < 0.05 vs. epinephrine). Propranolol further eliminated (two sites) or reduced (two sites) early afterdepolarizations, abolished ventricular premature complexes in the remaining one patient and further shortened the action potential duration to 337 ± 32 ms (p = 0.09 vs. verapamil). In the control patients, none of the early afterdepolarizations, ventricular arrhythmias or marked prolongations of action potential duration were induced by epinephrine, and neither verapamil nor propranolol changed repolarization variables.
Conclusions. These results indicate that both verapamil and propranolol can improve repolarization abnormalities induced by epinephrine in congenital long QT syndrome.
↵1 Dr. Shimizu was supported in part by a grant from the Japan Cardiovascular Research Foundation and by a Bayer Cardiovascular Disease Research Scholarship, Osaka, Japan.
This study was presented in part at the 66th Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association, Atlanta, Georgia, November 1993.
- Received January 11, 1995.
- Revision received April 14, 1995.
- Accepted June 7, 1995.
- American College of Cardiology