Author + information
- Received January 5, 1995
- Revision received September 19, 1995
- Accepted September 26, 1995
- Published online February 1, 1996.
- Hussein Tabatabaei, MD,
- Christine Boutin, MD,FRCPC,
- David G. Nykanen, MD,FRCPC,
- Robert M. Freedom, MD,FRCPC,FACC and
- Lee N. Benson, MD,FRCPC,FACC*
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Lee N. Benson, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8 Canada.
Objectives. This study sought to evaluate ventricular and valvular morphologic changes, hemodynamic consequences and clinical outcomes of pulmonary balloon valvotomy performed in the neonatal period.
Background. Previous studies support percutaneous balloon valvotomy as the management option of choice for infants and children with valvular pulmonary stenosis. Less information is available to define the impact of valvotomy on the clinical course when performed in the neonatal period.
Methods. Patient records, catheterization data, cineangiograms and selected echocardiograms (initial and most recent studies) of 37 consecutive neonates undergoing attempted balloon dilation were reviewed.
Results. Dilation was accomplished in 35 (94%) of 37 attempts. Immediately after dilation, the transvalvular peak to peak systolic gradient decreased from 60 ± 22 mm Hg (mean ± SD, range 20 to 100) to 11 ± 10 mm Hg (range 0 to 45) (p < 0.0001), and the right ventricular/aortic systolic pressure ratio decreased from 1.25 ± 0.43 (range 0.5 to 2.6) to 0.66 ± 0.22 (range 0.2 to 1) (p < 0.0001). Oxygen saturation measured by percutaneous oximetry increased from 80 ± 7% to 92 ± 4% (p < 0.0001). Three patients died (8%), and two required repeat balloon dilation. At the follow-up visit (median 31 months, range 6 months to 8 years), the estimated peak instantaneous Doppler gradient was 15 ± 9 mm Hg (range 6 to 36). Thickening of valve leaflets, initially present in 93% of patients, was found in only 4%, and leaflet mobility improved in all. Hypoplasia of the right ventricle, initially present in 31%, was found in only 4% at the latest evaluation. Pulmonary annulus diameter Z score increased from −3 ± 1.0 to 0 ± 0.1 (p < 0.0001). Freedom from reintervention was 90%, 84% and 84% at 1, 2 and 8 years, respectively.
Conclusions. These data support the application of balloon valvotomy as the initial intervention in the treatment algorithm for neonates with critical pulmonary valve stenosis. Medium-term follow-up observations demonstrate sustained hemodynamic relief and support maturation of the right ventricle and pulmonary valve annulus, with the expectation of a good long-term outcome.
- Received January 5, 1995.
- Revision received September 19, 1995.
- Accepted September 26, 1995.