Author + information
- Received October 6, 1995
- Revision received March 20, 1996
- Accepted March 27, 1996
- Published online August 1, 1996.
- Edward J. Lesnefsky, MD, FACCa,*,
- Conor F. Lundergan, MD, FACC*,
- John McB. Hodgson, MD, FACCa,
- Ravi Nair, MDa,
- Jonathan S. Reiner, MDa,
- Samuel W. Greenhouse, PhD*,
- Robert M. Califf, MD, FACC† and
- Allan M. Ross, MD, FACC*
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Edward J. Lesnefsky, Division of Cardiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-5038.
Objective. This study sought to determine whether the recovery of regional and global left ventricular function is reduced in elderly patients despite successful thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Comparisons were made between elderly (≥75 years old, n = 47) and adult (<75 years old, n = 434) patients enrolled in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) angiographic trial who underwent catheterization at 90 min and 5 to 7 days after thrombolysis and who had an open infarct-related artery with Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 2 to 3 flow at both times.
Background. The morbidity and mortality of acute myocardial infarction is increased in elderly patients, presumably because of multiple adverse coexistent baseline variables. However, functional recovery after thrombolysis has not been characterized in the elderly.
Methods. Ejection fraction, end-systolic volume index, infarct and noninfarct zone contractile function (SD/chord) and infarct extent (number of chords) were determined.
Results. At 90 min, elderly patients with an open infarct-related artery had decreased infarct zone contractile function (−2.8 ± 0.2 vs. −2.3 ± 0.1 SD/chord in adults, p ≤ 0.05) and a greater extent of injury (26.0 ± 2.6 vs. 20.7 ± 0.8 chords in adults, p ≤ 0.05). At 5- to 7-day follow-up ventriculography, ejection fraction was reduced, and end-systolic volume index was significantly increased in elderly patients compared with adults. The severity of regional wall motion dysfunction in the infarct zone was also greater in the elderly than in adults at 5- to 7-day follow-up (−2.6 ± 0.2 vs. −1.9 ± 0.1 SD/chord, respectively, p ≤ 0.005). Non-infarct zone contractile function at 90-min ventriculography was similar in both groups. Despite a patent infarct-related artery at 90-min, the 30-day mortality rate in the elderly remained elevated (17.8%) compared with that of adults (4%) (p ≤ 0.0001). Elderly patients were predominantly female and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, multivessel coronary disease, previous infarction, anterior infarctions and later time to treatment (between 3 and 6 h) than adults. However, age ≥75 years remained an independent determinant by multivariable regression analysis of 1-week postinfarction end-systolic volume index, regional left ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.02 and p ≤ 0.008, respectively) and 30-day mortality (p ≤ 0.0001).
Conclusions. Elderly patients had increased damage in the infarct zone and had persistently increased mortality despite sustained infarct-related artery patency after successful thrombolysis. Although the causes are probably multifactorial, a more rapid progression of ischemic injury or a blunted postreperfusion recovery appears to contribute to the poorer outcomes in elderly patients.
This study was funded by a combined grant from Bayer, New York, New York; CIBA-Corning, Medfield, Massachusetts; Genentech, South San Francisco, California; ICI Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, Delaware; and Sanofi Pharmaceutical, Paris, France.
- Received October 6, 1995.
- Revision received March 20, 1996.
- Accepted March 27, 1996.
- American College of Cardiology