Author + information
- Received December 4, 1995
- Revision received March 8, 1996
- Accepted March 12, 1996
- Published online August 1, 1996.
- Nilesh J. Samani, MD, FRCPa,*,
- Laurence O'Toole, MRCP*,
- Daniel Martin, BSca,
- Harjeet Rai, BSc*,
- Sue Fletcher, BSca,
- David Lodwick, PhDa,
- John R. Thompson, PhDa,
- Alyn H. Morice, MD, FRCP*,
- Kevin Channer, MD, FRCP* and
- Kent L. Woods, MD, FRCPa
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Nilesh J. Samani, Department of Cardiology, University of Leicester, Clinical Sciences Wing, Glenfield Hospital, Groby Road, Leicester LE3 9QP, United Kingdom.
Objectives. We sought to prospectively investigate whether genetic variation at the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene locus defined by an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism influences the risk of myocardial infarction or prognosis after infarction, or both.
Background. It has been suggested that the deletion allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene, and specifically the DD genotype, may increase the risk of myocardial infarction, although previous studies have produced conflicting reports. No studies have yet examined the effect of I/D polymorphism on survival after infarction.
Methods. Angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes in 684 patients with myocardial infarction recruited at the time of the acute event through coronary care units in two centers were compared with those of 537 control subjects recruited from the base populations. All patients were followed up to assess the impact of the angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype on prognosis.
Results. We found no difference (p = 0.89) in the genotype distribution between patients and control subjects (patients DD 31%, ID 47%, II 22%; control subjects DD 30%, ID 48%, II 22%). The odds ratio for myocardial infarction for DD compared with II/ID genotype adjusted for age, gender and center was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82 to 1.65, p = 0.44). The study had 90% power to detect a 1.5-fold increase in risk of myocardial infarction associated with the DD genotype. For one center, data were available for other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, angina, previous myocardial infarction, smoking, body mass index, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol) in both patients and control subjects. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis the odds ratio for DD versus ID/II genotypes remained nonsignificant (1.44, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.46, p = 0.20) for these subjects. Over a median follow-up period of 15 months (range 3 to 22), 155 patients (22.7%) died. There was no difference in mortality between subjects with the DD genotype and those with ID/II genotypes. (21.8% vs. 23.1%, p = 0.25). Likewise, there was no difference in the distribution of survival times in the two groups (p = 0.62). The study had 70% power to detect a 1.5-fold increase in mortality during follow-up associated with the DD genotype.
Conclusions. We conclude that in the groups studied, genetic variation at the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene locus defined by I/D polymorphism does not significantly influence either the risk of or the short- to medium-term prognosis after myocardial infarction.
This work was supported by the British Heart Foundation and the Nuffield Foundation, London, England, United Kingdom. Dr. O'Toole was supported by a project grant, and Mr. Martin by a research studentship, from the Medical Research Council, London, England, United Kingdom.
- Received December 4, 1995.
- Revision received March 8, 1996.
- Accepted March 12, 1996.
- American College of Cardiology