Author + information
- Received October 26, 1994
- Revision received December 31, 1995
- Accepted March 12, 1996
- Published online August 1, 1996.
- Alex Sagie, MD1,
- Nelmacy Freitas, MD2,
- Luis R. Padial, MD,
- Marcia Leavitt,
- Eleanor Morris, RDCS,
- Arthur E. Weyman, MD, FACC and
- Robert A. Levine, MD, FACC*,3
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Robert A. Levine, Noninvasive Cardiac Laboratory, Vincent-Burnham 5, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a large referral population, the rate of echocardiographic change in mitral valve area (MVA) without interim intervention, to determine which factors influence progression of narrowing and to examine associated changes in the right side of the heart.
Background. Little information is currently available on the echocardiographic progression of mitral stenosis, particularly on progressive changes in the right side of the heart and the ability of a previously proposed algorithm to predict progression.
Methods. We studied 103 patients (mean age 61 years; 74% female) with serial two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. The average interval between entry and most recent follow-up study was 3.3 ± 2 years (range 1 to 11).
Results. During the follow-up period, MVA decreased at a mean rate of 0.09 cm2/year. In 28 patients there was no decrease, in 40 there was only relatively little change (<0.1 cm2/year) and in 35 the rate of progression of mitral valve narrowing was more rapid (≥0.1 cm2/year). The rate of progression was significantly greater among patients with a larger initial MVA and milder mitral stenosis (0.12 vs. 0.06 vs. 0.03 cm2/year for mild, moderate and severe stenosis, p < 0.01). Although the rate of mitral valve narrowing was a weak function of initial MVA and echocardiographic score by multivariate analysis, no set of individual values or cutoff points of these variables or pressure gradients could predict this rate in individual patients. There was a significant increase in right ventricular diastolic area (17 to 18.7 cm2) and tricuspid regurgitation grade (2+ to 3+; p < 0.0001 between entry and follow-up studies). Progression in right heart disease occurred even in patients with minimal or no change in MVA. Patients with associated aortic regurgitation had a higher rate of decrease in MVA than did those with trace or no aortic regurgitation (0.19 vs. 0.086 cm2/year, p < 0.05).
Conclusions. The rate of mitral valve narrowing in individual patients is variable and cannot be predicted by initial MVA, mitral valve score or transmitral gradient, alone or in combination. Right heart disease can progress independent of mitral valve narrowing.
- Received October 26, 1994.
- Revision received December 31, 1995.
- Accepted March 12, 1996.
- American College of Cardiology