Author + information
- Received May 11, 1995
- Revision received February 16, 1996
- Accepted May 14, 1996
- Published online October 1, 1996.
- AKIRA T. KAWAGUCHI* (, )
- YOSHIO KOSAKAI,
- YOSHIKADO SASAKO,
- KIYOYUKI EISHI,
- KIYOHARU NAKANO and
- YASUNARU KAWASHIMA
- ↵*Address for correspondence: Dr. Akira T. Kawaguchi, National Cardiovascular Center, Fujishirodai 5-7-1, Suita 565, Osaka, Japan.
Objectives. This study sought to identify the risks and benefits of adding the maze procedure in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing operation for underlying organic cardiac disorders.
Background. Persistent AF often leaves patients symptomatic even after otherwise successful cardiac surgery.
Methods. Fifty-one patients undergoing valvular operation and the maze procedure (n = 43) or repair of congenital anomalies (n = 8) combined with the maze procedure were compared with 51 patients (control group) matched for underlying diseases and procedures except for the maze operation. Each group, including 31 patients with a concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty and 12 undergoing reoperation, were similar in age, duration of arrhythmia, degree of cardiomegaly and New York Heart Association functional class.
Results. Patients undergoing the maze procedure had longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (213 vs. 144 min, p < 0.0001), longer cardiac arrest (134 vs. 93 min, p < 0.0001) and greater blood loss with longer respiratory care (39 vs. 18 h, p = 0.021) and intensive care unit stay but no mortality. No significant differences were found in catecholamine or transfusion requirements immediately after operation. Sustained AF was much less frequent in the maze group (12% at 1 year) than the control group (86%, p < 0.0001), with an average follow-up period of 32 months (range 25 to 42). Atrial contraction was documented in 41 (80%) and 40 (78%) patients for right and left ventricular filling, respectively, after the maze procedure, resulting in a significantly smaller cardiac size and improved functional capacity. Medication was discontinued in seven patients in the maze group compared with two in the control group.
Conclusions. Improved restoration of atrial rhythm and contraction with combined maze operation appeared to justify the increased operative time and complexity and postoperative care.
- Received May 11, 1995.
- Revision received February 16, 1996.
- Accepted May 14, 1996.
- THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY