Author + information
- Received June 20, 1983
- Revision received September 13, 1983
- Accepted October 12, 1983
- Published online March 1, 1984.
- Niall P. Madigan, MD, FACC*,
- Jack J. Curtis, MD, FACC,
- John F. Sanfelippo, MD and
- Thomas J. Murphy, BA
- ↵*Present address and address for reprints: Niall P. Madigan, MD, Division of Cardiology, Ellis Hospital, 1101 Nott Street, Schenectady, New York 12308.
The dislodgment rate of permanent pacing ventricular and atrial endocardial leads has significantly decreased with the incorporation of tines as a fixation device. In contrast, transvenous manual extraction of chronically implanted endocardial leads is, at times, clinically indicated, particularly when pacemaker system infection is present. The success rate of such extraction attempts for ventricular endocardial leads over the past 5 years was reviewed. Extraction was usually successful (six of seven attempts) in patients with silicone rubber nontined (or short-tined) older ventricular endocardial leads (Group A). However, in patients with newer urethane long-tined ventricular endocardial leads (Group B), extraction was unsuccessful in three of four attempts. Because of entrapment of the distal electrode tip in the right ventricular apex, manual traction of these leads resulted in permanent conductor material stretching with resultant urethane insulator material breakage in the region of the joints with the proximal and distal electrodes. The one successful extraction in Group B was technically difficult and appeared to create a significant risk of intracardiac lead separation.
This experience indicates that with improved pacemaker lead design decreased lead dislodgment has been obtained at the cost of increased difficulty of ventricular endocardial lead extraction. Such difficulty should be anticipated when a clinical decision is made to attempt to extract the new urethane long-tined ventricular leads.
- Received June 20, 1983.
- Revision received September 13, 1983.
- Accepted October 12, 1983.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation