Author + information
- Received July 11, 1983
- Revision received January 10, 1984
- Accepted January 19, 1984
- Published online June 1, 1984.
- Nicholas L. DePace, MD,
- John Ross, RCPT,
- Abdulmassih S. Iskandrian, MD, FACC,
- Pasquale F. Nestico, MD,
- Morris N. Kotler, MD, FACC,
- Gary S. Mintz, MD, FACC,
- Bernard L. Segal, MD, FACC,
- A-hamid Hakki, MD, FACC and
- Joel Morganroth, MD, FACCa
- ↵aAddress for reprints: Joel Morganroth, MD, Likoff Cardiovascular Institute, Hahnemann University Hospital, 230 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102.
Tricuspid regurgitation is often not apparent on physical examination and several methods are now available to aid in this difficult assessment. Cardiac catheterization using right ventriculography, previously considered the diagnostic standard, has several limitations. Currently available noninvasive tools such as M-mode and two dimensional echocardiography (with or without contrast), Doppler techniques and even radionuclide cardiologic imaging have added significantly to the precise assessment of the presence and severity of tricuspid regurgitation. This review examines the comparative use and limitations of these various techniques.
- Received July 11, 1983.
- Revision received January 10, 1984.
- Accepted January 19, 1984.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation