Author + information
- Received March 5, 1996
- Revision received May 5, 1997
- Accepted May 22, 1997
- Published online July 1, 1997.
- Gregory A Braden, MD, FACCA,
- Nicholaos P Xenopoulos, MDA,
- Teresa Young, RTA,
- Leslie Utley, BAA,
- Michael A Kutcher, MD, FACCA and
- Robert J Applegate, MD, FACCA,*
- ↵*Robert J. Applegate, Section of Cardiology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27157-1045.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transluminal extraction catheter (TEC) atherectomy followed by immediate Palmaz-Schatz coronary stenting of coronary bypass vein grafts.
Background. Degeneration of saphenous vein coronary bypass grafts has become a common problem. Repeat bypass surgery is associated with greater risk and a poorer outcome than the initial operation. Moreover, percutaneous interventional procedures in vein grafts have been associated with high procedural complication rates, including distal embolization, and high restenosis rates. TEC atherectomy may reduce distal embolization, and stenting may reduce restenosis rates.
Methods. We evaluated the procedural, hospital and clinical outcomes of TEC atherectomy followed by immediate Palmaz-Schatz coronary stenting of 53 vein grafts in 49 consecutive patients. The strategy was to limit instrumentation to extraction debulking and to stabilizing the site with stent deployment before using balloon dilation for optimal gain in lumen diameter.
Results. Results are shown as mean value (95% confidence interval [CI]). The mean graft age was 9.2 years (95% CI 7.9 to 10.5), and 1.0 (95% CI 1 to 1) TEC cutter (2.2 mm [95% CI 2.1 to 2.3]) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) Palmaz-Schatz coronary stents/vein graft were used. The procedural success rate was 98%, with a minimal lumen diameter at baseline of 1.3 mm (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5), increasing to 3.9 mm (95% CI 3.6 to 4.2) (p < 0.05) after the TEC–stent procedure. Procedural complications occurred infrequently: graft perforation in 1 (2%) of 53 patients and distal embolization in 1 (2%) of 53 (same patient). In-hospital complications included non–Q wave myocardial infarction in two patients and death after a successful procedure in three (6%) (n = 1 each: massive bleeding from the catheter site; sepsis; and acute myocardial infarction with asystole in the distribution of the stented vessel). The event-free survival rate to hospital discharge was 90%. Clinical follow-up (13 months [95% CI 11 to 15]) was available for all patients. There were five (11%) revascularization procedures (three bypass grafts and two percutaneous transluminal coronary interventions), four (9%) nonfatal myocardial infarctions and five (11%) deaths, for a cumulative rate of 28% for any adverse outcome occurring in 13 of 46 patients.
Conclusions. TEC atherectomy followed by immediate Palmaz-Schatz coronary stenting of stenoses in old (>9 years) saphenous vein grafts can be successfully performed, with a low incidence of procedural and hospital complications. Clinical restenosis rates are low and less than those previously reported; however, late morbid cardiac events are still frequent in this high risk group of patients. These observational findings suggest that this technique may improve percutaneous management of vein graft disease, but optimal long-term management strategies remain to be determined.
- Received March 5, 1996.
- Revision received May 5, 1997.
- Accepted May 22, 1997.