Author + information
- Received January 10, 1997
- Revision received September 29, 1997
- Accepted October 13, 1997
- Published online February 1, 1998.
- Hany Shanoudy, MDA,
- Paolo Raggi, MDA,
- George A Beller, MD, FACCB,
- Adel Soliman, MDA,
- E.Gifford Ammermann, MDA,
- Robert J Kastner, MDA and
- Denny D Watson, PhDA,* ()
- ↵*Dr. Denny D. Watson, Nuclear Cardiology, Box 158, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908.
Objectives. We compared dipyridamole technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging with respect to the detection rate of perfusion abnormalities in 26 patients with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD).
Background. Experimental studies have shown that myocardial extraction of Tc-99m tetrofosmin is lower than that of Tl-201 at high flow rates, resulting in less severe defects with vasodilator stress. It is uncertain whether this results in a lower sensitivity than Tl-201 for detecting coronary stenoses with vasodilator stress in patients.
Methods. Twenty-six patients with CAD underwent both dipyridamole Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT. Tomographic images were scored for initial defects and the presence of reversibility. Defect magnitude was computer quantitated.
Results. Of the 26 patients, 25 had defects on both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT images. Of 340 segments analyzed, 102 had defects by Tl-201 and 92 by Tc-99m tetrofosmin (p = NS). Whereas Tl-201 detected 27 fixed defects in 12 patients, Tc-99m tetrofosmin identified 37 fixed defects in 14 patients (p = NS). In contrast, Tl-201 identified more reversible and partially reversible defects than did Tc-99m tetrofosmin (89 vs. 55, p = 0.002). The average defect magnitude (percent normal) was similar for defects concordantly graded as fixed (38 ± 3.0% for Tl-201 vs. 42 ± 4% [mean ± SEM] for Tc-99m tetrofosmin, p = NS). The average defect magnitude for defects concordantly graded as completely reversible was significantly more severe on Tl-201 than on Tc-99m tetrofosmin (49 ± 3% vs. 58 ± 3%) SPECT images. A significantly greater defect magnitude for Tl-201 was also found for defects concordantly classified as partly reversible (30 ± 4% for Tl-201 vs. 45 ± 5% for Tc-99m tetrofosmin).
Conclusions. With dipyridamole stress, 1) at least one defect was seen on both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT images; 2) Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT identified fewer reversible defects than did Tl-201, but showed a similar number of fixed defects; 3) the magnitude of reversible defects seen on Tc-99m tetrofosmin images was less, whereas fixed defects were similar for both tracers; 4) reversible defects seen on Tl-201 and not on Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT images were predominantly regions perfused by mild coronary stenoses.
Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) tetrofosmin is a lipophilic, cationic perfusion agent that, like Tc-99m sestamibi, is an alternative to thallium-201 (Tl-201) for stress imaging. Experimental animal studies have demonstrated that the myocardial extraction of Tc-99m tetrofosmin plateaus at flow rates >1.7 × normal [1, 2]. This plateau is reached earlier with Tc-99m tetrofosmin than with Tl-201 and Tc-99m sestamibi when the tracer is administered during adenosine-induced vasodilation. The goal of this study was to compare regional myocardial uptake of Tc-99m tetrofosmin versus Tl-201 during dipyridamole stress testing in patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the resultant scans were undertaken.
1.1 Study Patients
The study included 26 consecutive male patients (mean [±SD] age 62 ± 9 years, range 44 to 75) referred to the cardiology section of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Salem, Virginia, for evaluation of symptoms suggestive of CAD. Patients were included in the study if they had undergone cardiac catheterization demonstrating significant stenosis (>50%) of at least one major coronary artery or if they had had a dipyridamole Tl-201 single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scan showing myocardial perfusion abnormalities suggestive of CAD. They were excluded from the study if they had been admitted to the hospital with unstable angina for <48 h; demonstrated a left bundle branch block pattern on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG); had hemodynamic instability, severe congestive heart failure or severe valvular heart disease, or a combination of these; were actively taking drugs containing theophylline; or had recent history of bronchospasm. All patients signed a written informed consent before entering the study. The research protocol was approved by the Human Studies Committee of the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
1.2 Study Protocol
All patients underwent cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography, either as the initial diagnostic test to confirm CAD or after the acquisition of a dipyridamole Tl-201 SPECT scan showing myocardial perfusion abnormalities. All patients underwent two dipyridamole stress tests and coronary angiography within 14 days. Twenty-one patients underwent dipyridamole Tl-201 SPECT imaging as the initial test, and five patients underwent Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT as the initial test. If the dipyridamole tests were performed on consecutive days, as was the case for patients who had undergone coronary angiography first, Tl-201 tests were performed first, followed by the Tc-99m tetrofosmin study.
1.3 Dipyridamole Stress Protocol
Similar protocols were followed for both Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tl-201 dipyridamole studies. Patients fasted for at least 8 h before the study. Drugs and foods containing methylxanthines were excluded. All nitroglycerin preparations were discontinued for at least 24 h before the test. An intravenous catheter was inserted in an antecubital vein. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.56 mg/kg body weight (maximum of 60 mg, diluted in 40 ml of normal saline) over 4 min, while the patient rested in the supine position. The radiopharmaceutical agent (Tl-201 or Tc-99m tetrofosmin) was given by bolus injection 3 min after the completion of dipyridamole infusion. Vital signs and the 12-lead ECG were monitored and recorded before, during and for 8 min after dipyridamole administration. Intravenous aminophylline was administered in the event of severe side effects or symptoms induced by dipyridamole.
1.4 Tl-201 Imaging Protocol
A bolus of Tl-201 (3.0 to 3.5 mCi) was injected intravenously 3 min after the completion of intravenous infusion of dipyridamole. SPECT myocardial imaging was begun within 15 min, using standard views. Delayed images were obtained 3 to 4 h later.
1.5 Tc-99m Tetrofosmin Imaging
Tc-99m tetrofosmin was prepared from freeze-dried vials (Medi-Physics, Inc., Amersham Healthcare), with each vial containing a sterile, nonpyrogenic, lyophilized mixture of 0.23 mg of Tc-99m tetrofosmin, 0.03 mg of stannous chloride dihydrate, 0.32 mg of disodium sulfosalicylate, 1.0 mg of sodium d-gluconate and 1.8 mg of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The lyophilized powder was sealed under nitrogen atmosphere with rubber septum. Each vial was reconstituted according to the method described by Zaret et al. . In contrast to the stress–rest protocol used for Tl-201 imaging, a 1-day rest–stress injection protocol was used for Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging. A dose of 7 to 8 mCi of Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected intravenously at rest. Myocardial SPECT scanning was performed after a waiting period of 30 to 60 min. A minimum of 1 h was allowed after the completion of the rest imaging and before intravenous dipyridamole was infused. A bolus injection of 30 to 35 mCi of Tc-99m tetrofosmin followed the infusion of dipyridamole by 3 min, and myocardial SPECT images were acquired 30 to 60 min later.
1.6 SPECT Acquisition and Quantitative Analysis
Both Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tl-201 SPECT studies were acquired on a Sopha gamma camera (model DSX) with 180° contoured acquisition centered on the heart. The same filters were used for both tracers. Tl-201 SPECT acquisition was performed using 32 steps of 40 s each in a 25% window centered on the 80-keV gamma-ray peak of Tl-201. Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT studies were acquired using 32 steps of 25 s each in a 20% window centered on the 140-keV gamma-ray peak of Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Myocardial images were aligned in similar fashion in all patients, and the same orientation was used. Quantitative analysis entails use of a conventional polar map representing maximal pixel values obtained from searching radii crossing the myocardial wall. The polar maps were divided into 14 segments, and the average of all values within each segment was used as the quantitative variable. The 14 segments included six proximal short-axis, six distal short-axis and two apical segments (Fig. 1). Segments on the polar maps were divided to represent approximately equal myocardial volume samples accounting for the mapping distortion of the polar map. The segment with the highest average was set to 100%, and all other segments were normalized to that segment. The values for each segment represent the percent maximal uptake of the tracer. For the purpose of performing a qualitative analysis, the same segments identified on the short-axis and vertical long-axis tomograms were assigned a score from 0 to 2 based on the visual assessment of relative tracer activity: 0 = noninterpretable; 1 = mildly reduced activity; and 2 = moderately or severely reduced activity. Each segment demonstrating a perfusion abnormality during stress was then classified as demonstrating complete reversibility (score = 1), partial reversibility (score = 2) or a fixed defect (score = 3) during the rest phase. All scans were reviewed by two observers (G.A.B., D.D.W.) who read the studies in random order and who had no knowledge of the study type, identification and clinical information. Segments with normal activity by visual assessment were indicated by a blank entry. The consensus interpretation of each segment was used to define normal and abnormal segments. The quantitative values were used only as a measure of activity within these segments. All quantitative values are expressed as a fraction or percentage of the segment of highest average uptake. These values were not corrected for attenuation or normalized to a normal data base.
1.7 Coronary Angiography
All patients underwent coronary angiography with multiple views of the right and left coronary arteries. This test and the two nuclear scans were completed within 14 days. The films were reviewed by a single expert investigator, and the site and severity of coronary artery stenoses were recorded. Significant coronary stenosis was defined as ≥50% reduction in the endolumen diameter of at least one major coronary artery, as determined by quantitative coronary angiography. Selected angiographic frames were digitized off-line on a high resolution image processing system (Imaging MDIC, Inc.). Calibration was achieved by measurement of the diameter of the catheters used, which were of known dimension. Coronary artery diameters were measured at the site of stenosis and in adjacent nonstenotic segments located both before and after the stenotic lesion; all ectatic coronary arteries were excluded from analysis. Percent diameter stenosis and area stenosis were calculated. The values reported refer to percent diameter stenosis.
1.8 Statistical Analysis
Results are presented as the mean value ± SEM, unless otherwise indicated. A chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the number of segments showing perfusion abnormalities between the two radiopharmaceutical agents. The average magnitude of segmental perfusion defects that were concordantly identified by both tracers was obtained and compared using a paired ttest. More than one abnormal segment was concordantly identified in some patients, and this raises the question as to the statistical independence of these multiple samples. Accordingly, an analysis was performed using the patient as the unit of analysis. In this analysis, concordant defects were averaged for each patient, so each patient is weighted as a single statistical sample. Moreover, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used so that differences would not be weighted by individual defect magnitude.
Table 1summarizes the clinical characteristics of the patient cohort. All 26 patients were men (mean [±SD] age 62 ± 9 years, range 44 to 75). Four patients had undergone previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and two patients had undergone previous percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Seven patients had one-vessel, 7 patients had two-vessel and 12 patients had three-vessel CAD. Three patients had >50% left main CAD. A critical stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery was present in 21 patients; 22 patients had a critical stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery; and 19 had right CAD. Six patients had a known previous myocardial infarction.
2.2 Dipyridamole Stress Results
All 26 patients completed two dipyridamole stress protocols: one with Tl-201 and the second with Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Hemodynamic and ECG variables monitored during dipyridamole infusion were not significantly different between the two tests. Blood pressure and heart rate response to the pharmacologic stress were similar for both procedures (Table 2). The occurrence of chest pain and ECG ischemic changes were also similar. Ten patients had chest pain and nine had ≥1.0 mm ST segment depression with dipyridamole infusion.
2.3 SPECT Imaging Analysis
At least one perfusion defect was detected in 25 of the 26 patients on both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT images. Of the 364 segments analyzed with Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging, 24 were considered noninterpretable by the two observers who read the scans in a blinded manner. This was attributed to background or gut activity, or both. None of the 364 segments analyzed on Tl-201 SPECT images were judged to be noninterpretable. Nevertheless, the 24 segments on Tl-201 SPECT images that corresponded to the noninterpretable Tc-99m tetrofosmin images were excluded from final analyses. Of these 24 defects on Tl-201 SPECT scintigrams, 14 were normal, 7 were completely reversible and 3 were partially reversible.
Of the 340 segments interpretable by both techniques, 212 were concordantly normal, 26 were concordantly completely reversible, 9 were partially reversible and 12 were concordantly fixed or nonreversible (Table 3). The number of fixed defects detected by each tracer was not statistically different (27 by Tl-201 vs. 37 by Tc-99m tetrofosmin, p = NS). Tl-201 SPECT identified more reversible and partially reversible defects than did Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT (89 vs. 55, p = 0.002).
Twenty-four segments interpreted as normal on Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT corresponded to completely reversible defects on Tl-201 SPECT images. In contrast, seven normal Tl-201 segments corresponded to completely reversible defects on Tc-99m tetrofosmin studies. After completion of the blinded interpretation of the radionuclide studies, the location of reversible defects was correlated with coronary angiographic findings. Coronary vessels with >50% stenoses were identified in supply zones for all reversible Tl-201 defects that showed normal Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake and all reversible Tc-99m tetrofosmin defects read as normal on Tl-201 SPECT studies. Finally, Tl-201 SPECT studies revealed defects in 13 (68%) of the 19 coronary supply territories perfused by vessels with 50% to 70% stenoses (10 reversible), whereas Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT identified 7 defects (3 reversible) in the same 19 territories (p = 0.05 for one-sided ttest for difference in reversible defects). Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging identified an equal number of defects in territories supplied by 71% to 99% stenoses or total occlusion (76% and 72%, respectively).
2.4 Quantitative Analysis of SPECT Images
Fig. 2shows the mean defect magnitude (expressed as percent maximal uptake) for completely reversible, partially reversible and fixed defects concordantly graded on both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT studies. Reversible defects were more severe with Tl-201 (49 ± 3% [mean ± SEM]) than with Tc-99m tetrofosmin (58 ± 3%). This difference was highly significant by either the paired ttest (p = 0.0001) or the Wilcoxon test (p = 0.004). Partly reversible defects were also more severe for Tl-201 than for Tc-99m tetrofosmin (30 ± 4% vs. 45 ± 5%). This difference was significant (p = 0.02 by the paired ttest and p = 0.03 by the Wilcoxon test). Fixed defects averaged 38 ± 3% for Tl-201 and 42 ± 4% for Tc-99m tetrofosmin. This difference was not significant by the paired ttest (p = 0.06), but tested as significant by the Wilcoxon test (p = 0.03). We conclude that the difference for fixed defects was insignificant or, at most, marginally significant.
Technetium-99m 1,2-bis(bis[2-ethoxyethyl]phosphino)ethane (Tc-99m tetrofosmin) is a lipophilic, cationic complex that is rapidly cleared from the blood pool with intravenous injection and that exhibits slow myocardial clearance without evidence for delayed redistribution . This new imaging agent, like Tc-99m sestamibi, accumulates in mitochondria. Only viable myocardial tissue sequesters Tc-99m tetrofosmin, and its myocardial uptake is reduced by metabolic inhibitors (such as iodoacetic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol) and excessive influx of calcium [4–6]. Takahashi et al. showed that in rats, both the initial and delayed retention of Tc-99m tetrofosmin was sensitive to myocardial viability, as exhibited by significantly lower uptake and retention in nonviable segments identified 1 h after reperfusion preceded by 1 h of total coronary occlusion. Koplan et al. showed that initial Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake was similar to Tl-201 uptake in a dog model in which rest left anterior descending coronary artery flow was reduced by 50%, producing severe systolic dysfunction. In this model, Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial activity was less than Tl-201 activity after 2 h of redistribution.
3.1 Experimental Studies
After intravenous injection, Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake in the myocardium is related to regional blood flow [1, 2]. However, the relative Tc-99m tetrofosmin activity underestimates blood flow >1.5 to 2.0 ml/min per g. Glover et al. found that both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake reached a plateau in the myocardium with adenosine-induced hyperemia, but the Tc-99m tetrofosmin plateau was lower than the Tl-201 plateau. In dogs with a critical or mild left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake underestimated the magnitude of the flow disparity, and the degree of underestimation was greater for Tc-99m tetrofosmin. In the same study, the investigators found that the first-pass myocardial extraction fraction for Tc-99m tetrofosmin averaged 54%, which is lower than the previously published extraction fraction values for Tl-201, ranging from 82% to 88%, and is slightly lower than the extraction fraction for Tc-99m sestamibi. The observation that the flow heterogeneity between stenotic and normal myocardial beds produced by adenosine stress in the presence of a coronary stenosis is better resolved with Tl-201 than with Tc-99m tetrofosmin in the canine model is most likely explained by the lower first-pass myocardial extraction fraction for Tc-99m tetrofosmin. The experimental findings with Tc-99m tetrofosmin with adenosine stress in this canine stenosis model are similar to those reported previously with Tc-99m sestamibi, in which the magnitude of adenosine-induced flow heterogeneity was underestimated by both Tc-99m sestamibi and Tl-201, but more so by Tc-99m sestamibi .
3.2 Clinical Studies
In the clinical setting, Tc-99m tetrofosmin planar or SPECT imaging with exercise stress has yielded high quality images and good sensitivity and specificity values for detection of CAD, and segmental perfusion abnormalities were concordant with Tl-201 perfusion abnormalities when patients underwent stress imaging with both tracers [3, 9–12].
In the present study, dipyridamole Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy was compared with Tl-201 scintigraphy using quantitative SPECT imaging in a group of male patients who underwent both tests as well as coronary angiography. Both techniques yielded comparable detection rates of abnormal scans in the 26 patients, but Tl-201 SPECT identified more reversible and partially reversible perfusion defects than did Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT (89 vs. 55 defects). Furthermore, the average defect magnitude, expressed as percent normal, was similar for defects concordantly graded as nonreversible, whereas the defect magnitude for segmental perfusion abnormalities graded as completely or partially reversible on both SPECT studies was more severe with Tl-201 than with Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Thus, with dipyridamole stress imaging, both the number of reversible defects and the magnitude of these reversible defects were greater for Tl-201 scintigraphy than for Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy, whereas the prevalence of nonreversible defects and defect magnitude of these fixed defects were comparable between the two radionuclide studies.
These findings are consistent with other clinical reports in which a higher detection rate for reversible ischemia was seen for Tl-201 versus Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Nakajima et al. reported 60% sensitivity for detecting ≥75% stenoses for Tc-99m tetrofosmin compared with 72% for Tl-201. Specificity was comparable at 84%. In a study by Matsunari et al. , 58 perfusion zones with initial Tl-201 defects had corresponding normal Tc-99m tetrofosmin uptake.
The defect magnitude on Tc-99m tetrofosmin scans has been reported by other investigators to be less than the defect magnitude on Tl-201 scintigraphy performed in the same patients. Matsunari et al. found that the defect size on exercise Tc-99m tetrofosmin images was smaller than the defect size on Tl-201 images, as assessed by quantitative SPECT imaging in 20 patients with CAD. Tamaki et al. reported a greater defect magnitude with Tl-201 than with Tc-99m tetrofosmin, particularly in myocardial zones that corresponded to reversible Tl-201 defects. Nevertheless, both Tc-99m tetrofosmin imaging and Tl-201 imaging were highly sensitive for detecting CAD.
Consistent with the findings in the present study, Cuocolo et al. reported a lesser Tc-99m tetrofosmin defect magnitude on adenosine stress images compared with exercise images when exercise and vasodilator stress studies were performed in the same patient group. In a more recent report by Cuocolo et al. , 22 of 25 patients with CAD showed perfusion defects on adenosine Tc-99m tetrofosmin tomography. Twenty-two of those patients had at least one severe (>75%) coronary stenoses, and 23% had a previous myocardial infarction. Mahmood et al. evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of combined rest Tl-201 stress Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT using adenosine infusion along with low level dynamic exercise for detection of individual coronary artery stenoses. They studied 25 patients with known CAD. The overall coronary stenosis detection rate was 80%, with a specificity of 70%. It should be pointed out that more than 50% of the patients had a previous myocardial infarction. The presence of previous myocardial scar will always increase the detection rate of narrowings of coronary arteries perfusing these nonviable myocardial zones.
3.3 Study Limitations
Several limitations of this clinical observational study deserve mention: 1) The study included men only. It is now accepted that SPECT imaging with Tc-99m labeled radiopharmaceutical agents provides enhanced specificity for detection of CAD in women, without affecting sensitivity. 2) Only sensitivity for detecting reversible ischemia with vasodilator stress imaging was undertaken, without attention to comparing the specificity of the two imaging agents, because patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries or patients with a <5% pretest likelihood of CAD not undergoing angiography were not enrolled. Extrapolation of the findings with dipyridamole stress to exercise stress cannot be made because with exercise stress and consequent myocardial ischemia and regional systolic dysfunction, Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintigraphy may yield better detection rates of reversible ischemia than are seen with vasodilator stress. This study used a standard same-day rest/stress protocol for Tc-99m tetrofosmin. A 2-day protocol might have provided more optimal study quality.
This study was designed to compare the detection of perfusion defects and reversibility using conventional interpretations of standard SPECT images. Quantitative analysis was used to measure the actual tracer activity in segments graded as normal or abnormal. Accordingly, we did not normalize segments to compensate for attenuation or to a normal data base. In comparing Tc-99m technetium and Tl-201 tracers, some differences might be due to differences in photon attenuation or to reconstruction error caused by higher visceral uptake in the proximity of the myocardium with Tc-99m technetium tracers. To obtain a better understanding of the quantitative magnitude of these differences, we averaged the uptake of Tl-201 and Tc-99m technetium for segments that were concordantly graded as normal. A profile of these average values for normal segments is shown in Fig. 3. The normal attenuation pattern of inferior and posterior segments is clearly demonstrated. The differences between Tl-201 and Tc-99m are less than we might have intuitively imagined. These profiles of normal segments do not show major systematic differences attributable to differential attenuation, scatter or reconstruction error. The slightly greater attenuation of Tl-201 in the inferior segments is in accordance with calculations using known attenuation coefficients. The difference in the linear attenuation coefficients is often perceived intuitively to be much greater than it is by actual measurement or calculation.
3.4 Clinical Implications
Perhaps the most important finding in this study is that dipyridamole Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT yielded a reduced detection rate of reversible defects in the distribution of mild to moderate stenoses in patients with CAD, compared with Tl-201 SPECT. In contrast, dipyridamole Tl-201 SPECT and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT identified a comparable number of defects in myocardial regions supplied by stenoses >70%. It has not been determined whether this limitation has any effect on the prognostic significance of a normal Tc-99m tetrofosmin scan. Also, the implication of a lower detection rate of multiple perfusion defects in patients with multivessel disease needs to be ascertained.
With dipyridamole stress, 1) at least one defect was seen on both Tl-201 and Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT; 2) Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT identified fewer reversible defects than did Tl-201, but showed a similar number of fixed defects; 3) the magnitude of reversible defects on Tc-99m tetrofosmin images was less than the magnitude of reversible defects on Tl-201 images, whereas the defect magnitude of fixed segments was similar for both tracers; and 4) reversible defects seen on Tl-201 SPECT but not on Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT were predominantly regions perfused by mild coronary stenoses.
☆ This study was supported by a grant from Medi-Physics, Inc., Amersham Health Care, Arlington Heights, Illinois.
- coronary artery disease
- electrocardiogram, electrocardiographic
- single-photon emission computed tomography (tomographic)
- Received January 10, 1997.
- Revision received September 29, 1997.
- Accepted October 13, 1997.
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