Author + information
- Received February 8, 1997
- Revision received January 16, 1998
- Accepted January 26, 1998
- Published online May 1, 1998.
- Stephen G. Ellis, MD, FACCA,* (, )
- Kimberly J. Brown, RNA,
- Renee Ellert, RNA,
- Georgiana L. HowellA,
- Dave P. Miller, MSB,
- Noreen M. FlowersC,
- Penelope A. Ott, MS, MPAC,
- Thomas Keys, MDC,
- Floyd D. Loop, MD, FACCD and
- Eric J. Topol, MD, FACCA
- ↵*Dr. Stephen G. Ellis, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, F-25, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
Objectives. We sought to determine the clinical, angiographic, treatment and outcome correlates of the intermediate-term cost of caring for patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).
Background. To adequately predict medical costs and to compare different treatment and cost reduction strategies, the determinants of cost must be understood. However, little is known about the correlates of costs of treatment of CAD in heterogenous patient populations that typify clinical practice.
Methods. From a consecutive series of 781 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization in 1992 to 1994, we analyzed 44 variables as potential correlates of total (direct and indirect) in-hospital, 12- and 36-month cardiac costs.
Results. Mean (±SD) patient age was 65 ± 10 years; 71% were men, and 45% had multiple vessel disease. The initial treatment strategy was medical therapy alone in 47% of patients, percutaneous intervention (PI) in 30% and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in 24%. The 36-month survival and event-free (death, infarction, CABG, PI) survival rates were 89.6 ± 0.2% and 68.4 ± 0.4%, respectively. Median hospital and 36-month costs were $8,301 and $28,054, respectively, but the interquartile ranges for both were wide and skewed. Models for logecosts were superior to those for actual costs. The variances accounted for by the all-inclusive models of in-hospital, 12- and 36-month costs were 57%, 60% and 71%, respectively. Baseline cardiac variables accounted for 38% of the explained in-hospital costs, whereas in-hospital treatment and complication variables accounted for 53% of the actual costs. Noncardiac variables accounted for only 9% of the explained costs. Over time, complications (e.g., late hospital admission, PI, CABG) and drug use to prevent complications of heart transplantation became more important, but many baseline cardiac variables retained their importance.
Conclusions. 1) Variables readily available from a comprehensive cardiovascular database explained 57% to 71% of cardiac costs from a hospital perspective over 3 years of care; 2) the initial revascularization strategy was a key determinant of in-hospital costs, but over 3 years, the initial treatment become somewhat less important, and late complications became more important determinants of costs.
- Received February 8, 1997.
- Revision received January 16, 1998.
- Accepted January 26, 1998.
- The American College of Cardiology