Author + information
- Received August 3, 1998
- Revision received September 2, 1998
- Accepted October 22, 1998
- Published online February 1, 1999.
- Melissa A. Stevens, MDa,
- Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPHa,∗,1,*,
- Kenneth J. Tobin, DOa,
- John P. Speck, MDa,
- Douglas C. Westveer, MD, FACCa,
- Debra A. Guido-Allen, BSNa,
- Gerald C. Timmis, MD, FACCa and
- William W. O’Neill, MD, FACCa
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence: Dr. Peter A. McCullough, Henry Ford Health System, One Ford Place, Suite 3C, Detroit, Michigan 48202
Parts of this report were presented at the 47th Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology, Atlanta, Georgia, April 1, 1998.
This study was done to test the hypothesis that a forced diuresis with maintenance of intravascular volume after contrast exposure would reduce the rate of contrast-induced renal injury.
We have previously shown a graded relationship with the degree of postprocedure renal failure and the probability of in-hospital death in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Earlier studies of singular prevention strategies (atrial natriuretic factor, loop diuretics, dopamine, mannitol) have shown no clear benefit across a spectrum of patients at risk.
A prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blind trial was conducted where 98 participants were randomized to forced diuresis with intravenous crystalloid, furosemide, mannitol (if pulmonary capillary wedge pressure <20 mm Hg), and low-dose dopamine (n = 43) versus intravenous crystalloid and matching placebos (n = 55).
The groups were similar with respect to baseline serum creatinine (2.44 ± 0.80 and 2.55 ± 0.91 mg/dl), age, weight, diabetic status, left ventricular function, degree of prehydration, contrast volume and ionicity, and extent of peripheral vascular disease. The forced diuresis resulted in higher urine flow rate (163.26 ± 54.47 vs. 122.57 ± 54.27 ml/h) over the 24 h after contrast exposure (p = 0.001). Two participants in the experimental arm versus five in the control arm required dialysis, with all seven cases having measured flow rates <145 ml/h in the 24 h after the procedure. The mean individual change in serum creatinine at 48 h, the primary end point, was 0.48 ± 0.86 versus 0.51 ± 0.87, in the experimental and control arms, respectively, p = 0.87. There were no differences in the rates of renal failure across six definitions of renal failure by intent-to-treat analysis. However, in all participants combined, the rise in serum creatinine was related to the degree of induced diuresis after controlling for baseline renal function, r = −0.36, p = 0.005. The rates of renal failure in those with urine flow rates greater than 150 ml/h in the postprocedure period were significantly lower, 8/37 (21.6%) versus 28/61 (45.9%), p = 0.03.
Forced diuresis with intravenous crystalloid, furosemide, and mannitol if hemodynamics permit, beginning at the start of angiography provides a modest benefit against contrast-induced nephropathy provided a high urine flow rate can be achieved.
- Received August 3, 1998.
- Revision received September 2, 1998.
- Accepted October 22, 1998.
- American College of Cardiology