Author + information
- Received September 22, 1997
- Revision received April 2, 1999
- Accepted May 14, 1999
- Published online September 1, 1999.
- Satoshi Nakatani, MD, FACCa,1,
- Mario J Garcia, MD, FACCa,
- Michael S Firstenberg, MDa,
- Leonardo Rodriguez, MD, FACCa,
- Richard A Grimm, DO, FACCa,
- Neil L Greenberg, PhD‡,
- Patrick M McCarthy, MD†,
- Pieter M Vandervoort, MD, FACCa,2 and
- James D Thomas, MD, FACCa,* ()
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence: Dr. James D. Thomas, Department of Cardiology, Desk F15, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
The study assessed whether hemodynamic parameters of left atrial (LA) systolic function could be estimated noninvasively using Doppler echocardiography.
Left atrial systolic function is an important aspect of cardiac function. Doppler echocardiography can measure changes in LA volume, but has not been shown to relate to hemodynamic parameters such as the maximal value of the first derivative of the pressure (LA dP/dtmax).
Eighteen patients in sinus rhythm were studied immediately before and after open heart surgery using simultaneous LA pressure measurements and intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Left atrial pressure was measured with a micromanometer catheter, and LA dP/dtmaxduring atrial contraction was obtained. Transmitral and pulmonary venous flow were recorded by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Peak velocity, and mean acceleration and deceleration, and the time-velocity integral of each flow during atrial contraction was measured. The initial eight patients served as the study group to derive a multilinear regression equation to estimate LA dP/dtmaxfrom Doppler parameters, and the latter 10 patients served as the test group to validate the equation. A previously validated numeric model was used to confirm these results.
In the study group, LA dP/dtmaxshowed a linear relation with LA pressure before atrial contraction (r = 0.80, p < 0.005), confirming the presence of the Frank-Starling mechanism in the LA. Among transmitral flow parameters, mean acceleration showed the strongest correlation with LA dP/dtmax(r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Among pulmonary venous flow parameters, no single parameter was sufficient to estimate LA dP/dtmaxwith an r2> 0.30. By stepwise and multiple linear regression analysis, LA dP/dtmaxwas best described as follows: LA dP/dtmax= 0.1 M-AC + 1.8 P-V − 4.1; r = 0.88, p < 0.0001, where M-AC is the mean acceleration of transmitral flow and P-V is the peak velocity of pulmonary venous flow during atrial contraction. This equation was tested in the latter 10 patients of the test group. Predicted and measured LA dP/dtmaxcorrelated well (r = 0.90, p < 0.0001). Numerical simulation verified that this relationship held across a wide range of atrial elastance, ventricular relaxation and systolic function, with LA dP/dtmaxpredicted by the above equation with r = 0.94.
A combination of transmitral and pulmonary venous flow parameters can provide a hemodynamic assessment of LA systolic function.
↵1 Dr. Nakatani currently works at the National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.
↵2 Dr. Vandervoort currently works at Heart Center Limburg, Genk, Belgium.
☆ Dr. Nakatani was supported in part by a grant from the Uehara Memorial Foundation, Tokyo, Japan; Dr. Thomas was supported in part by Grant 93-13880 from the American Heart Association, Greenfield, Texas, Grant 1R01HL56688, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland and Grant NCC9-60, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Texas; Dr. Vandervoort was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid from the American Heart Association Northeast Ohio Affiliate.
- Received September 22, 1997.
- Revision received April 2, 1999.
- Accepted May 14, 1999.
- American College of Cardiology