Author + information
- Received September 11, 2000
- Revision received February 22, 2001
- Accepted March 1, 2001
- Published online June 15, 2001.
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Niraj Varma, Cardiac Muscle Research Laboratory, X720, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, 650 Albany Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02118
The goal of this study was to determine the subcellular mechanism(s) underlying increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic chamber stiffness (DCS) during angina (demand ischemia).
Increased DCS may result from increased diastolic myocyte calcium concentration and/or rigor. Therefore, we assessed the effects of direct alterations of both calcium-activated tension and high-energy phosphates on increased DCS.
Demand ischemia was reproduced in isolated, isovolumic, red-cell perfused rabbit hearts by imposing low-flow ischemia and pacing tachycardia. This resulted in increased DCS. Interventions were performed after LV end-diastolic pressure had increased approximately 7 mm Hg. Initially, to determine the effects of altered calcium concentration or myofilament calcium responsiveness, hearts received either: 1) 5 or 14 mmol/L calcium chloride; 2) 8 mmol/L egtazic acid; 3) 5 mmol/L butane-dione-monoxime (BDM); or 4) 50 mmol/L ammonium chloride (NH4Cl). Then, to assess the contribution of decreased high-energy phosphate supply, hearts received 5) glucose (25 mmol/L) and insulin (400 μU/ml).
1) Calcium chloride, 5 and 14 mmol/L, increased LV systolic pressure by 42% and 70%, respectively (p < 0.001), indicating increased calcium-activated tension, but did not further increase DCS, implying intact diastolic calcium resequestration. 2) Egtazic acid reduced LV systolic pressure by 30% (p < 0.001), indicating reduced intracellular calcium, but failed to reduce increased DCS. 3) Butane-dione-monoxime and NH4Cl chloride affected contractile function (i.e., a calcium-driven force) but did not alter increased DCS. 4) Glucose and insulin, which increase high-energy phosphates during ischemia, reduced increased DCS by 50% (p < 0.001).
Increased DCS during demand ischemia was insensitive to maneuvers altering intracellular calcium concentration or myofilament calcium-responsiveness, that is, evidence against an etiology of calcium-activated tension. In contrast, increased glycolytic substrate ameliorated increased DCS, supporting a primary mechanism of rigor-bond formation.
☆ Supported in by USPHS grant HL48175. Dr. Varma received the “Physician-Investigator Fellowship” of the American Heart Association, Massachusetts affiliate #13-614-923.
- Received September 11, 2000.
- Revision received February 22, 2001.
- Accepted March 1, 2001.
- American College of Cardiology