Author + information
- Received February 21, 1984
- Revision received May 29, 1984
- Accepted June 12, 1984
- Published online November 1, 1984.
- Raymond R. Fripp, MD, FACC*,1,
- John C. Werner, MD, FACC1,
- Victor Whitman, MD1,
- Aaron Nordenberg, MD, FACC1 and
- John A. Waldhausen, MD, FACC1
- ↵*Address for reprints: Raymond R. Fripp, MD, Department of Pediatrics, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, Pennsylvania 17033.
Two-dimensional echocardiography was used to make the anatomic diagnosis of aortico-left ventricular tunnel in a 1 day old infant. Pulsed Doppler echocardiography allowed directional flow to be determined within the tunnel. The findings were confirmed by cardiac catheterization and by direct visualization at the time of surgical repair. Aortic valve insufficiency was excluded before and after surgery using pulsed Doppler echocardiography. The anatomy and physiology of aortico-left ventricular tunnel can thus be documented using noninvasive techniques.
- Received February 21, 1984.
- Revision received May 29, 1984.
- Accepted June 12, 1984.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation