Author + information
- Received August 13, 2002
- Revision received September 12, 2002
- Accepted September 20, 2002
- Published online January 1, 2003.
- Katsuomi Iwakura, MD*,
- Hiroshi Ito, MD, FACC*,* (, )
- Masashi Ikushima, MD*,
- Shigeo Kawano, MD*,
- Atsushi Okamura, MD*,
- Katsuaki Asano, MD*,
- Tadashi Kuroda, MD*,
- Koji Tanaka, MD*,
- Tohru Masuyama, MD†,
- Masatsugu Hori, MD† and
- Kenshi Fujii, MD*
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Hiroshi Ito, Division of Cardiology, Sakurabashi Watanabe Hospital, 2-4-32 Umeda, Kita-ku, Osaka 530-0001, Japan.
Objectives We investigated the association between hyperglycemia and the no-reflow phenomenon in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Background Hyperglycemia is associated with increased risks of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death after AMI, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown.
Methods A total of 146 consecutive patients with a first AMI were studied by intracoronary myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) after successful reperfusion within 24 h after symptom onset. Two-dimensional echocardiography was recorded on day 1 and three months later to determine the change in the wall motion score (ΔWMS; sum of 16 segmental scores; dyskinesia = 4 to normokinesia = 0).
Results The no-reflow phenomenon was found on MCE in 49 (33.6%) of 146 patients; their glucose level on hospital admission was significantly higher than that of patients who did not exhibit this phenomenon (209 ± 79 vs. 159 ± 56 mg/dl; p < 0.0001). There was no difference in glycosylated hemoglobin or in the incidence of diabetes mellitus between the two subsets. The no-reflow phenomenon was more often observed in the 75 patients with hyperglycemia (≥160 mg/dl) than in those without hyperglycemia (52.0% vs. 14.1%; p < 0.0001). Patients with hyperglycemia had a higher peak creatine kinase level (2,497 ± 1,603 vs. 1,804 ± 1,300 IU/l; p = 0.005) and a lower ΔWMS (3.7 ± 4.8 vs. 5.7 ± 4.3; p = 0.01) than did those without hyperglycemia. The blood glucose level was an independent prognostic factor for no reflow, along with age, gender, absence of pre-infarction angina, complete occlusion of the culprit lesion, and anterior AMI.
Conclusions Hyperglycemia might be associated with impaired microvascular function after AMI, resulting in a larger infarct size and worse functional recovery.
- Received August 13, 2002.
- Revision received September 12, 2002.
- Accepted September 20, 2002.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation