Author + information
- Received January 20, 2002
- Revision received September 9, 2002
- Accepted September 20, 2002
- Published online March 5, 2003.
- Yoshiteru Abe, MD*,
- Makoto Kondo, MD*,* (, )
- Ryota Matsuoka, MD*,
- Makoto Araki, MD*,
- Kiyoshi Dohyama, MD* and
- Hitoshi Tanio, MD*
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Makoto Kondo, Division of Cardiology, Shimada Municipal Hospital, 1200-5 Noda, Shimada City, Shizuoka, 427-8502 Japan.
Objectives We sought to assess the clinical features of transient left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning.
Background Although several cases regarding transient LV apical ballooning have been reported, the etiology remains unknown.
Methods We investigated 17 patients (14 women, median age 74 years old with a range of 54 to 91 years old) who fulfilled the following criteria: 1) transient LV apical ballooning; 2) ST-T segment change in several leads in electrocardiogram; and 3) no history of old myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or pheochromocytoma.
Results Emotional and physical stress were observed in 16 patients (94%). Technetium-99m tetrofosmin tomographic imaging revealed decreased uptake at the apex of the left ventricle in 11 patients (85%) that later returned to uniform. No significant stenosis or angiographical slow flow in epicardial coronary arteries was observed (n = 9). Provocative focal vasospasm was induced in only one patient (14%) (n = 7). Moreover, no significant abnormality in the coronary microcirculation was detected by Doppler guidewire (n = 3) or contrast echocardiography (n = 1). No patients showed a rise in viral antibody titers. Biopsy specimens revealed interstitial fibrosis in six patients (100%) and slight cell infiltration in three others (50%) (n = 6).
Conclusions These findings suggested that neither abnormalities in the coronary circulation nor acute myocarditis was related to the etiology. Although neurogenic stunned myocardium induced by emotional or physical stress was suggested as the etiology, further investigations are necessary.
- Received January 20, 2002.
- Revision received September 9, 2002.
- Accepted September 20, 2002.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation