Author + information
- Received July 2, 2002
- Revision received August 30, 2002
- Accepted September 6, 2002
- Published online April 2, 2003.
- Daniel S Berman, MD, FACC*,* (, )
- Xingping Kang, MD*,
- Sean W Hayes, MD*,
- John D Friedman, MD, FACC*,
- Ishac Cohen, PhD*,
- Aiden Abidov, MD*,
- Leslee J Shaw, PhD†,
- Aman M Amanullah, MD*,
- Guido Germano, PhD, FACC* and
- Rory Hachamovitch, MD, MSc, FACC*
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Daniel S. Berman, Department of Imaging, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Room A042, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.
Objectives This study was designed to assess the incremental prognostic value of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (MPS) in women versus men, and to explore the prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus.
Background Limited data are available regarding the incremental value of adenosine stress MPS for the prediction of cardiac death in women versus men and the impact of diabetes mellitus on post-adenosine MPS outcomes.
Methods Of 6,173 consecutive patients who underwent rest thallium-201/adenosine technetium-99m sestamibi MPS, 254 (4.1%) were lost to follow-up, and 586 with early revascularization ≤60 days after MPS were censored, leaving 2,656 women and 2,677 men.
Results Women had significantly smaller adenosine stress, rest, and reversible defects than men. During 27.0 ± 8.8 month follow-up, cardiac death rates were lower in women than men (2.0%/year vs. 2.7%/year, respectively, p < 0.05). Before and after risk adjustment, cardiac death risk increased significantly in both men and women as a function of MPS results. Multivariable models revealed that MPS results provided incremental prognostic value over pre-scan data for the prediction of cardiac death in both genders. Also, while comparative unadjusted rates of early (≤60 days post-test) coronary angiography (17% vs. 23%) and revascularization (8% vs. 12%) were significantly lower in women (p < 0.05), after adjusting for MPS, these rates were similar in men and women. Importantly, diabetic women had a significantly greater risk of cardiac death compared with other patients. Also, after risk adjustment, patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) had higher risk of cardiac death for any MPS result than patients with non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Conclusions The findings suggest that adenosine MPS has comparable incremental value for prediction of cardiac death in women and men and that MPS is appropriately influencing subsequent invasive management decisions in both genders. Diabetic women and patients with IDDM appear to have greater risk of cardiac death than other patients for any MPS result.
☆ This work was supported, in part, by grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb Medical Imaging, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts, and Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc., Deerfield, Illinois.
- Received July 2, 2002.
- Revision received August 30, 2002.
- Accepted September 6, 2002.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation