Author + information
- Received December 9, 2002
- Revision received January 6, 2003
- Accepted January 30, 2003
- Published online July 16, 2003.
- Yoshihiro Fukumoto, MD, PhD*,
- Hiroyuki Tsutsui, MD, PhD*,* (, )
- Miyuki Tsuchihashi, MS*,
- Akihiro Masumoto, MD, PhD*,
- Akira Takeshita, MD, PhD*,
- Cholesterol Embolism Study(CHEST) Investigators
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kyushu University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.
Objectives We sought to determine the incidence of cholesterol embolization syndrome (CES) as a complication of cardiac catheterization and to identify risk factors associated with this disease.
Background Cholesterol embolization syndrome is a systemic disease caused by distal showering of cholesterol crystals after angiography, major vessel surgery, or thrombolysis.
Methods We prospectively evaluated a total of 1,786 consecutive patients 40 years of age and older, who underwent left-heart catheterization at 11 participating hospitals. The diagnosis of CES was made when patients had peripheral cutaneous involvement (livedo reticularis, blue toe syndrome, and digital gangrene) or renal dysfunction.
Results Twenty-five patients (1.4%) were diagnosed as having CES. Twelve patients (48%) had cutaneous signs, and 16 patients (64%) had renal insufficiency. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher in CES patients than in non-CES patients before and after cardiac catheterization. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16.0% (4 patients), which was significantly higher than that without CES (0.5%, p < 0.01). All four patients with CES who died after cardiac catheterization had progressive renal dysfunction. The incidence of CES increased in patients with atherosclerotic disease, hypertension, a history of smoking, and the elevation of baseline plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) by univariate analysis. The femoral approach did not increase the incidence, suggesting a possibility that the ascending aorta may be a potential embolic source. As an independent predictor of CES, multivariate regression analysis identified only the elevation of pre-procedural CRP levels (odds ratio 4.6, p = 0.01).
Conclusions Cholesterol embolization syndrome is a relatively rare but serious complication after cardiac catheterization. Elevated plasma levels of pre-procedural CRP are associated with subsequent CES in patients who undergo vascular procedures.
- Received December 9, 2002.
- Revision received January 6, 2003.
- Accepted January 30, 2003.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation