Author + information
- Received March 14, 2004
- Accepted March 15, 2004
- Published online June 2, 2004.
- James H O'Keefe Jr, MD*,* (, )
- Loren Cordain, PhD†,
- William H Harris, PhD*,
- Richard M Moe, MD, PhD* and
- Robert Vogel, MD‡
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. James H. O'Keefe, Jr., Mid America Heart Institute, Cardiovascular Consultants, 4330 Wornall Road, Suite 2000, Kansas City, Missouri 64111, USA.
The normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol range is 50 to 70 mg/dl for native hunter-gatherers, healthy human neonates, free-living primates, and other wild mammals (all of whom do not develop atherosclerosis). Randomized trial data suggest atherosclerosis progression and coronary heart disease events are minimized when LDL is lowered to <70 mg/dl. No major safety concerns have surfaced in studies that lowered LDL to this range of 50 to 70 mg/dl. The current guidelines setting the target LDL at 100 to 115 mg/dl may lead to substantial undertreatment in high-risk individuals.
- Received March 14, 2004.
- Accepted March 15, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation