Author + information
- Received November 26, 2003
- Accepted February 3, 2004
- Published online June 16, 2004.
- Giuseppe G. Pietra, MD*,* (, )
- Frederique Capron, MD†,
- Susan Stewart, MD‡,
- Ornella Leone, MD§,
- Marc Humbert, MD¶,
- Ivan M. Robbins, MD#,
- Lynne M. Reid, MD∥ and
- R.M. Tuder, MD**
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Giuseppe G. Pietra, Via San Giorgio 23, CH 6976 Castagnola, Switzerland.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes various forms of pulmonary hypertension of different etiology but similar clinical presentation and functional derangement. Histopathological vascular changes in all forms of PAH are qualitatively similar but with quantitative differences in the distribution and prevalence of pathological changes in various portions of the pulmonary vascular bed. The documentation of these topographic variations in the response of the pulmonary vasculature to injury may be important to understand the pathogenesis of the various subsets of PAH. To standardize the precise histopathological documentation of the pulmonary vasculopathy in PAH we propose a histopathological classification that includes both the predominant segment of the pulmonary vasculature affected and the possible coexistence of pathological changes in other vascular segments.
- Received November 26, 2003.
- Accepted February 3, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation