Author + information
- Received September 16, 2003
- Revision received March 11, 2004
- Accepted March 16, 2004
- Published online July 7, 2004.
- Anil-Martin Sinha, MD, DPhil*,
- Erik C Skobel, MD*,
- Ole-Alexander Breithardt, MD*,
- Christine Norra, MD†,
- Kai U Markus, MD*,
- Christian Breuer, MD*,
- Peter Hanrath, MD, FESC, FACC* and
- Christoph Stellbrink, MD, FESC*,* ()
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Christoph Stellbrink, Medizinische Klinik I, University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
Objectives We studied the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA).
Background Patients with advanced HF often suffer from CSA with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves myocardial function and exercise capacity in HF patients with conduction disturbances. The relationship between CRT and CSA is currently unknown.
Methods Twenty-four patients (7 females; 62 ± 11 years) with HF, a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (24 ± 6%), and left bundle branch block (QRS duration 173 ± 22 ms) received a CRT device. The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]) and minimal oxygen saturation (Sao2min) were quantified by cardiorespiratory polygraphy. Fourteen patients showed CSA (AHI >5/h), and 10 patients had an AHI <5/h without CSA. Subjective sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were evaluated before and after 17 ± 7 weeks of CRT.
Results In patients with CSA, CRT led to a significant decrease in AHI (19.2 ± 10.3 to 4.6 ± 4.4, p < 0.001) and PSQI (10.4 ± 1.6 to 3.9 ± 2.4, p < 0.001) without Cheyne-Stokes respiration and to a significant increase in Sao2min (84 ± 5% to 89 ± 2%, p < 0.001). There was no significant change in AHI (1.7 ± 0.7 to 1.5 ± 1.6), PSQI (2.4 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.9), and Sao2min (90 ± 2% to 91 ± 1%) in patients without CSA.
Conclusions Cardiac resynchronization therapy leads to a reduction of CSA and to increased sleep quality in patients with HF and sleep-related breathing disorders. This may have prognostic implications in patients receiving CRT.
- Received September 16, 2003.
- Revision received March 11, 2004.
- Accepted March 16, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation