Author + information
- Received July 6, 2004
- Revision received August 9, 2004
- Accepted September 2, 2004
- Published online December 7, 2004.
- Silvia Lutucuta, MD*,
- Natalia Tsybouleva, MD*,
- Masukuni Ishiyama, MD*,
- Gilberto DeFreitas, MS*,
- Lei Wei, PhD†,
- Blase Carabello, MD* and
- A.J. Marian, MD*,* ()
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. A. J. Marian, Associate Professor of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, One Baylor Plaza, 519D, Houston, Texas 77030
Objectives The aim of this study was to establish reversibility of cardiac phenotypes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by generating bigenic mice in which expression of the mutant transgene could be turned on and off as needed.
Background Advances in molecular therapeutics could ultimately lead to therapies aimed at correcting the causal mutations. However, whether cardiac phenotypes, once established, are permanent, or could be reversed, if expression of the mutant protein is turned off, is unknown.
Methods We generated ligand-inducible bigenic mice, turned on and off expression of cardiac troponin T-Q92 (cTnT-Q92), responsible for human HCM, and characterized molecular, histologic, and functional phenotypes.
Results We established six lines and in dose-titration studies showed that treatment with 1,000 μg/kg of mifepristone consistently switched on cTnT-Q92 expression in the heart. Short-term (16 days) induced expression enhanced myocardial systolic function without changing myocardial cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels. Levels of PTEN, a regulator of cardiac function, phospho-protein kinase C-Ζλ-Thr538 and phosphor-protein kinase D-Ser744-748 were reduced, whereas messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of NPPA, NPPB, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium adenine triphosphatase 2 (ATP2A2) (hypertrophic markers) and procollagen COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1were unchanged. Long-term (70 days) induced expression increased COL1A1and COL1A3 mRNAs levels and collagen volume fraction and reduced levels of NPPAand NPPB. Switching off expression of the cTnT-Q92 reversed functional, molecular, and histologic phenotypes completely.
Conclusions The initial phenotype induced by cTnT-Q92 is enhanced myocardial systolic function followed by changes in signaling kinases and interstitial fibrosis. Established phenotypes in HCM reverse upon turning off expression of the mutant protein. These findings provoke pursuing specific therapies directed at correcting the underlying the genetic defect in HCM.
Supported by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Specialized Centers of Research P50-HL54313, RO1 HL68884, and a TexGen grant from the Greater Houston Community Foundation.
- Received July 6, 2004.
- Revision received August 9, 2004.
- Accepted September 2, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation