Author + information
- Received January 12, 2004
- Revision received February 24, 2004
- Accepted March 11, 2004
- Published online August 4, 2004.
- Eugenia Nikolsky, MD, PhD⁎,†,
- Eve D. Aymong, MD, FACC⁎,†,
- Amir Halkin, MD⁎,†,
- Cindy L. Grines, MD, FACC‡,
- David A. Cox, MD, FACC§,
- Eulogio Garcia, MD∥,
- Roxana Mehran, MD, FACC⁎,†,
- James E. Tcheng, MD, FACC¶,
- John J. Griffin, MD, FACC#,
- Giulio Guagliumi, MD**,
- Thomas Stuckey, MD, FACC††,
- Mark Turco, MD, FACC‡‡,
- David A. Cohen, MD, FACC§§,
- Manuela Negoita, MD⁎,†,
- Alexandra J. Lansky, MD, FACC⁎,† and
- Gregg W. Stone, MD, FACC⁎,†,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Gregg W. Stone, Cardiovascular Research Foundation, 55 East 59th Street, 6th Floor, New York, New York 10022
Objectives We sought to investigate the impact of anemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Background The prognostic importance of anemia on primary PCI outcomes is unknown.
Methods In the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications (CADILLAC) trial, 2,082 patients of any age with AMI within 12 h onset undergoing primary PCI were randomized to balloon angioplasty versus stenting, each ± abciximab. Outcomes were stratified by the presence of anemia at baseline, as defined by World Health Organization criteria (hematocrit <39% for men and <36% for women).
Results Anemia was present in 260 (12.8%) of 2,027 randomized patients with baseline laboratory values. Patients with versus without baseline anemia more frequently developed in-hospital hemorrhagic complications (6.2% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.002), had higher rates of blood product transfusions (13.1% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.0001), and had a prolonged (median 4.1 vs. 3.5 days, p < 0.0001) and more expensive (median costs $12,434 vs. $11,603, p = 0.002) index hospitalization. Patients with versus without anemia had strikingly higher mortality during hospitalization (4.6% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.0003), at 30 days (5.8% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.0001), and at 1 year (9.4% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.0001). The rates of disabling stroke at 30 days (0.8% vs. 0.1%, p = 0.005) and at 1 year (2.1% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.0007) were also significantly higher in patients with anemia. By multivariate analysis, anemia was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio, 3.26; p = 0.048) and one-year mortality (hazard ratio, 2.38; p = 0.016).
Conclusions Anemia at baseline in patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI is common, and is strongly associated with adverse outcomes and increased mortality.
- Received January 12, 2004.
- Revision received February 24, 2004.
- Accepted March 11, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation