Author + information
- Received January 15, 2004
- Revision received June 3, 2004
- Accepted June 14, 2004
- Published online September 15, 2004.
- Guillermo Torre-Amione, MD, PhD, FACC*,* (, )
- François Sestier, MD†,
- Branislav Radovancevic, MD‡ and
- James Young, MD§
- ↵*Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. Guillermo Torre-Amione, Methodist DeBakey Heart Center and Baylor College of Medicine, 6550 Fannin, Suite 1901, Houston, Texas 77030
Objective We sought to determine whether a novel, non-pharmacological form of immune modulation therapy (IMT), shown experimentally to reduce inflammatory and increase anti-inflammatory cytokines, improved outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (HF).
Background Immune activation contributes to the progression of HF, but treatments directed against inflammation have been largely unsuccessful.
Methods Seventy-five HF patients (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III to IV) were randomized to receive either IMT (n = 38) or placebo (n = 37) in a double-blind trial for six months, with continuation of standard HF therapy. Patients were evaluated using the 6-min walk test, changes in NYHA functional class, cardiac function, and quality of life assessments, as well as occurrence of death and hospitalization.
Results There was no between-group difference in 6-min walk test, but 15 IMT patients (compared with 9 placebo) improved NYHA functional classification by at least one class (p = 0.140). The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that IMT significantly reduced the risk of death (p = 0.022) and hospitalization (p = 0.008). Analysis of a clinical composite score demonstrated a significant between-group difference (p = 0.006). There was no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction, but there was a trend toward improved quality of life (p = 0.110).
Conclusions These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that immune activation is important in the pathogenesis of HF and establish the basis for a phase III trial to define the benefit of IMT in chronic HF.
Support was provided by Vasogen Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
- Received January 15, 2004.
- Revision received June 3, 2004.
- Accepted June 14, 2004.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation