(A)Transesophageal echocardiography showing aortic bicuspid valve and right sinus of Valsalva aneurysm ruptured into the right atrium late after balloon dilation of coarctation of the aorta. (B)Magnetic resonance image (MRI) of an ascending aorta aneurysm in a patient with unrepaired mild coarctation of the aorta. (C)This MRI shows a descending aorta giant false aneurysm in another patient with unrepaired mild coarctation. (D)This MRI shows an abnormal bulge of aorta (aneurysm) and a false aneurysm (pseudoaneurysm) late after patch aortoplasty; aortobronchial fistula, causing massive hemoptysis, was also demonstrated (arrow). An = true aneurysm; PsA = false aneurysm. Reprinted with permission from Oliver et al. (51).