|Cause||No. of Athletes||Percent|
|Coronary artery anomalies||53||13.7|
|Left ventricular hypertrophy of indeterminate causation†||29||7.5|
|Ruptured aortic aneurysm (Marfan syndrome)||12||3.1|
|Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy||11||2.8|
|Tunneled (bridged) coronary artery‡||11||2.8|
|Aortic valve stenosis||10||2.6|
|Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease||10||2.6|
|Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration||9||2.3|
|Asthma (or other pulmonary condition)||8||2.1|
|Other cardiovascular cause||4||1.0|
|Long QT syndrome§||3||0.8|
|Trauma causing structural cardiac injury||3||0.8|
|Ruptured cerebral artery||3||0.8|
↵⁎ Data are from the registry of the Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation (3).
↵† Findings at autopsy were suggestive of HCM but were insufficient to be diagnostic.
↵‡ Tunneled coronary artery was deemed the cause of death in the absence of any other cardiac abnormality.
↵§ The long QT syndrome was documented on clinical evaluation. Source: Reproduced from Maron B.J. (3) with permission of the Massachusetts Medical Society.