Author + information
- Received April 25, 2005
- Revision received May 20, 2005
- Accepted May 24, 2005
- Published online September 20, 2005.
- Pascalle S. Monraats, MSc⁎,†,
- Jamal S. Rana, MD‡,
- Melchior C. Nierman, MD‡,
- Nuno M.M. Pires, MSc⁎,§,
- Aeilko H. Zwinderman, PhD∥,
- John J.P. Kastelein, MD, PhD‡,
- Jan Albert Kuivenhoven, PhD‡,
- Moniek P.M. de Maat, PhD¶,
- Saskia Z.H. Rittersma, MD#,
- Abbey Schepers, MD§,⁎⁎,
- Pieter A.F. Doevendans, MD, PhD††,
- Robbert J. de Winter, MD, PhD#,
- René A. Tio, MD, PhD‡‡,
- Rune R. Frants, PhD§§,
- Paul H.A. Quax, PhD§,⁎⁎,
- Arnoud van Der Laarse, PhD⁎,
- Ernst E. van Der Wall, MD, PhD⁎ and
- J. Wouter Jukema, MD, PhD⁎,†,⁎ ()
- ↵⁎Reprint requests and correspondence:
Dr. J. Wouter Jukema, Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, C5-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, the Netherlands
Objectives We sought to identify polymorphisms in genes that predispose to restenosis.
Background Variations in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene have been implicated in a number of pathophysiologic conditions associated with coronary heart disease. The present study examines the impact of polymorphisms in the LPL gene on restenosis (defined by target vessel revascularization [TVR]) in a large patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A mouse model for restenosis was used to further investigate LPL’s role in restenosis.
Methods The GENetic DEterminants of Restenosis (GENDER) project is a multicenter, prospective study design that enrolled 3,104 consecutive patients after successful PCI. These patients were genotyped for four different LPL gene polymorphisms. In apolipoprotein E (ApoE)*3-Leiden transgenic mice, arterial messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was used to assess LPL expression during a cuff-induced restenotic process.
Results Using multivariable analysis, carriers of the 447Ter allele of the LPL enzyme showed a lower risk of TVR compared with 447Ser homozygotes (p = 0.005). In the mouse model, LPL mRNA levels were increased 40-fold compared with control arteries at 6 h after cuff placement.
Conclusions The LPL C/G polymorphism (Ser447Ter), resulting in a truncation of the two C-terminal amino acids of the mature LPL protein, appears to be an important protective factor for TVR in humans. The role of LPL in this process was further established in a mouse model, where LPL expression was very strongly up-regulated in the target arterial wall, suggesting a contribution of this lipolytic enzyme to restenosis. Possibly, LPL Ser447Ter genotyping may lead to better risk stratification and tailored therapy in the prevention of restenosis after PCI.
The study sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of the study, the writing of this report, or the decision to submit it for publication. Dr. Monraats is supported by grant 99.210 from the Netherlands Heart Foundation and a grant from the Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands (ICIN). Dr. Quax (Established Investigator) and Dr. Schepers are supported by the Molecular Cardiology Program of the Netherlands Heart Foundation (M 93.001). Dr. Jukema is an Established Clinical Investigator of the Netherlands Heart Foundation (2001 D 032).
- Received April 25, 2005.
- Revision received May 20, 2005.
- Accepted May 24, 2005.
- American College of Cardiology Foundation