Torsion during cardiac cycle. *Significant torsion differences between diabetics and control 1 patients during systole, isovolumic relaxation, and early diastole (p < 0.05). At end systole (100% ES), diabetics had a 23% increase in torsion compared with the control 1 patients. %ES = percent systolic duration. Solid squares= control 1 patients (n = 10); open squares= diabetics (n = 16).